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Department of British and medieval antiquities with ten plates and 148 illustrations printed by order of the trustees 1904. — Oxford: Printed at the University Press. — 160 р. As a sequel to the Stone Age Guide, published in 1902, the present volume is intended primarily to direct attention to our national antiquities, and to illustrate the connection between this country and the...
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Predynastic Antiquities, Mummies, Mummy-Cases, and other Objects connected with the Funeral Rites of the Ancient Egyptians. — Second edition. With 32 plates and 28 illustrations in the text. – Harrison and Sons, printers in ordinary to His Majesty, St. Martin’s lane, London. 1904. — 230 р. This Guide contains a description of the pre- dynastic antiquities, etc., arranged in the...
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Predynastic Antiquities, Mummies, Mummy-Cases, and other Objects connected with the Funeral Rites of the Ancient Egyptians. — Second edition. With 8 plates and 131 illustrations in the text. — Harrison and sons, printers in ordinary to His Majesty, St. Martin’s lane, London, 1904. — 308 р. This Guide contains a description of the predynastic and archaic antiquities, portrait...
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In: Von Majkop bis Trialeti. Gewinnung und Verbreitung von Metallen und Obsidian in Kaukasien im 4.–2. Jt. v. Chr. — Bonn, 2010. — pp. 167-178. Due to its plentiful natural resources, such as abundant polymetallic and iron ores, rich deposits of copper, gold and silver, and iron-bearing magnetic sands on the southeastern shores of the Black Sea, the region of South Caucasia,...
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In: S.Müller-Celka/E. Borgna (eds), Ancestral Landscapes: Burial mounds in the Copper and Bronze Ages (Central and Eastern Europe – Balkans – Adriatic – Aegean, 4th–2nd millennium BC). Traveaux de la maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée 58 — Lyon, 2011. — pp. 307–320. Up to the beginning of the 21st c., in the region between the Danube River and the Balkan range, almost 300...
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Studia Praehistorica. — 2010. — No 13 — pp. 277–292. Barrow graves have always been of great interest for the scholars investigating the problems of cultural development, trade, migrations and even ethnic affiliation of the Bronze Age communities in Southeastern Europe. Based on their importance, many attempts have been made to classify and determine their chronology and...
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In book: M. Jaeger, J. Czebreszuk, K.P. Fischl (eds.) Enclosed Space — Open Society. Contact and Exchange in the Context of Bronze Age Fortified Settlements in Central Europe. SAO/SPEŚ 9. — Poznań–Bonn, 2012. — pp. 11-25. The presence of big and well-fortified settlements in Central Europe is often given as an example of the possible ideological and practical influence of...
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American Journal of Archaeology. — 2009. — No 113 — Pp. 497–519. During the past few decades, evidence for the ancient smelting of copper has been discovered in areas isolated from one another. In most of them, the beginning of metallurgy had no substantial social and cultural consequences. Accordingly, the diffusionist theory (assuming the existence of a single homeland for...
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Antiquity. — 2011. — 85 (328). — p. 599–612. The bronze spearhead at the end of a long shaft is traditionally seen as a thrusting or throwing weapon, as seen in the movies. By examining the damage on a group of Late Bronze Age spearheads from Britain, and replicating their use in combat, the author shows that the spear was an even more versatile weapon—for throwing, thrusting and...
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Routledge, 2014. — 272 p. This book aims to understand the process of the Bronze Age societies of Northern Europe which are often regarded as the periphery and a bleak contrast to the Central European Bronze Age. The Bronze Age is the first "globalised" period with new types of societies and new modes of exchange and trade. In this context there is considerable local variation and...
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Journal of World Prehistory. — 2011. — No 24 (2) — pp. 131-160. Andrew Sherratt included horseback riding and chariotry in his conception of the Secondary Products Revolution, but his emphasis on the role of horses in warfare and on a Near Eastern influence in the earliest episode of horse domestication is viewed here as as an important shortcoming in his understanding of the...
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David W. Anthony, Dorcas R. Brown, Oleg D. Vochalov, Aleksandr Khokhlov, Pavel Kuznetsov, — UCLA; Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, 2016. — 513 p. Introduction and Overview of Samara Valley Project 1995-2002 David W. Anthony The Samara Valey Project and Evolution of Pastoral Economies in the Western Eurasian Steppes David W. Anthony, Dorcas R. Drown and Pavel F. Kuznetsov...
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Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2001. — 368 p. — ISBN 91-973674-2-7. This volume in the From Coast to Coast Project deals with two main subjects: the ways in which labour is divided and its relationship to social complexity in traditional societies, and the nature of social organisation of the Late Neolithic agrarian societies of Scandinavia.
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 454-468. This article examines gold and goldwork during the Bronze Age. It first reviews the history of research on Bronze Age goldwork, and notes that some exceptional gold finds have changed people’s views of the Bronze Age. The article then studies some of...
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Armit I., Swindles G.T., Becker K., Plunkett G., and Blaauw M. — Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. — 2014. — 111 (48) — pp. 17045–17049. The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during...
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Hesperia. The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. — 2011. — Vol. 80 (3) — pp. 381–429. This article presents the evidence for Early Archaic ritual activity on the site of a Late Bronze Age cemetery a short distance outside the walls of Troy, at a spot known to excavators as “A Place of Burning.” Here, as at the West Sanctuary adjacent to the citadel,...
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In: Stampolidis N., Maner Ç. and Kopanias K. (eds.). Nostoi: Indigenous Culture, Migration and Integration in the Aegean Islands and Western Anatolia During the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. — Istanbul, 2015. — pp. 185–209. During the transition from the LBA to the Iron Age, a migration of people from Thrace, the Balkans or the Lower Danube region came to Troy and...
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In: Knapp A.B., Van Dommelen P. (Eds.) The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean. — Cambridge University Press, 2015. — pp. 139-156. Archaeologists working in Anatolia have been underrepresented in the debates on the so-called Anatolianising of Philia material culture that marks the beginning of the Bronze Age in Cyprus. In this chapter, I outline how...
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Proceedings of an international symposium held at St. John's College, University of Oxford 25-6th March 2006. — Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books, 2009. — 227 pp. — (Themes from the Ancient Near East BANEA Publication Series, Vol. 1). — ISBN 978-1-84217-332-9. The volume is the first in nearly a decade to focus a wide range of scholarship on one of the most compelling periods in the...
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In: N. Bolohan/F. Măţău/F. A. Tencariu (eds), Signa praehistorica. Studia in honorem magistri Attila László septuagesima anno. Honoria 9 — Iaşi, 2010. — pp. 203–212. The term “Early Bronze Age” rose and is still raising discussion, especially regarding the defining criteria, the beginning of the period and its chronological evolution. If the end of the Early Bronze Age seems to...
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Transylvanian Review. — 2010. — Vol. XIX, Supplement 5: 1. — pp. 151–162. Following the assumption that the society of the Bronze Age had a strong hierarchy based on power and prestige structures, and thus that it was a society where the military component played an important part, this paper proposes to initiate a discussion focussing on the metal artefacts datable to the...
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Budapest: Archaeolingua, 2001. — 106 pp. — (Archaeolingua Series Minor). — ISBN 963-8046-36-8. "A clay female figurine was acquired by the Collection of Antiquities of the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest together with several other Egyptian antiquities from a collection assembled in Egypt. At first glance this object, kept as a permanent deposit in the museum, could not be...
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Sino-Platonic Papers. — 2000. — № 99 — 103 pp. In recent literature a very different scenario is portrayed for the early development of wheeled transport. It is stated by leading authorities that no form of wheeled vehicle existed in China prior to the introduction from Central Asia of the chariot around 1200 B.C. Western scholars maintain that early Bronze Age China only...
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Blackwell Publishing, 2007. — 435 p. The idea of this book began as notes for my course at Boston University, the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Much of the book was written while I was on sabbatical leave in 2002–3, and I would like to thank the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Boston University for approving this leave so that I could spend the year writing and...
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Routledge, 1999. — 1227 p. — ISBN 0-203-98283-5. The Encyclopedia opens with a map of the region and a chronology which provides a context for the material which follows. The first section of the Encyclopedia comprises fourteen overview essays. The first offers a general introduction and the remaining essays are guides to developments in the archaeology of the region in...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 328-347. This article discusses the biological, economic, and cultural traits of animals in Bronze Age Europe, which are best compared in terms of resource mobility and reproduction rates. It first discusses the available evidences, such as animal remains and...
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Palaeohistoria. Acta et communications institute bio-archaeologici Universitatis Groninganae / ed. H. T. Waterbolk. — Groningen, 1967. — Vol. XII. Neolithic Studies in Atlantic Europe. Proceedings of the second Atlantic Colloquium. Groningen, 6–11 April 1964. — P. 33–40. Only a few important problems within Danish Stone Age research have been brought forward by fresh material...
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Proceedings of the International Colloquium from Târgu Mureş, 8-10 October 2010 / ed. by Sándor Berecki, Rita E. Németh, Botond Rezi. — Târgu-Mureş: Mega, 2011. — 380 pp. — (Biblioteca Musei Marisiensis. Seria Archaeologica; IV). — ISBN 978-606-543-156-0. The International Colloquium Bronze Age Rites and Rituals in the Carpathian Basin held in Târgu Mureș on October 8–10...
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Cluj-Napoca: Mega, 2016. — 210 p. — (Bibliotheca Musei Marisiensis, Seria Archaeologica, X). — ISBN 978-606-543-718-0. The location of the habitation from Luduș Fabrica de Cânepă (Eng. Hemp Factory) along the middle Mureş Valley facilitated its connection with the western world, found between the Criş Rivers and along the Tisa River, reaching even areas as far as the Danube....
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Stockholm: Bricoleur Press, 2007. — 232 pp. — (Stockholm Studies in Archaelogy, no 43). — ISBN 91-85411-03-05. This dissertation deals with male and female social identities during the Middle Bronze Age (1600-1300 BC) in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany. South Scandinavian Bronze Age research has traditionally focused on the male sphere, while women have seldom been...
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In book: H. Meller, H.W. Arz, R. Jung, and R. Risch (eds.) 2200 BC - A climatic breakdown as a cause for the collapse of the Old World? — Halle: Landesmuseum fur Vorgeschichte, 2015. — pp. 561-578. The area encompassed by the Danubian Early Bronze Age comprises the regions north of the Alps, mostly along the upper and middle Danube corridor, from Switzerland in the west to...
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New York, "Cambridge University Press", 2007, -315 p. The societies that developed in the eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze Age produced the most prolific and diverse range of stone vessel traditions known at any time or anywhere in the world. Stone vessels are therefore a key class of artefact in the early history of this region. As a form of archaeological evidence,...
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In: Heyd V., Kulcsár G., Szeverényi V. (eds.) Transitions to the Bronze Age. Interregional Interaction and Socio-Cultural Change in the Third Millennium BC Carpathian Basin and Neighbouring Regions. — Budapest, 2013. — pp. 339-356. The current investigations allowed us to set forth some assumptions or conclusions, which concern the evolution of the Costişa community in the...
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Budapest: Archaeolingua Alapítvány, 2012. — 142 pp. — (Archaeolingua. Series minor; 32). — ISBN 978-963-9911-34-5. The invention of the wheel and of wheeled vehicles was one of the major innovations with a lasting impact on human history. Wheeled conveyances played an important role in the life of prehistoric communities and contributed to the emergence of an invisible network...
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In: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 877-897. This article studies the histories and traditions of research on the Bronze Age in Moldova, Romania, and Bulgaria. It first focuses on the Early Bronze Age, which is characterised by widespread uniformity in decoration styles and ceramic shapes. The local differences...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 121-139. This article studies the concept of hoarding during the European Bronze Age. The first section narrates the discovery of a collection of metal artefacts in the River Wear, which could be gifts that were presented to Archbishop Michael Ramsey. The...
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In book: Koch J.T., Cunliffe B. (Eds.) Celtic from the West 2: Rethinking the Bronze Age and the Arrival of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe. — Oxbow Books, 2013. — p. 147-155. Recent advances in identifying the language of inscriptions from Early Iron Age stelae in south-western Iberia as an archaic branch of Celtic call into question much of our conventional wisdom about the...
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M.A. Thesis in Archaeology. — Bergen University, 2013. — 103 pp. "I have considered different research history on cemeteries from areas in Upper Egypt, Lower Nubia and the Sinai from the Early Bronze Age. The methodological approach was mainly based on comparison however it was also based on spatial analysis for landscape archaeology. The theoretical background was based on...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 5 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 82-101. This article focuses on the settlements that were built during the Bronze Age of Europe. It presents some examples of settlements from northwest Europe, and focuses on houses and settlement sites. The discussion begins with a section on the set of ideas and...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 11 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 197-215. This article addresses the myth of the chief in Europe during the Bronze Age. It shows that the European Bronze Age societies were originally labelled as ‘warrior aristocracies’ or ‘petty princes’, but are now generally imagined as chiefdoms. The article defines...
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Hendrik J. Bruins, J. Alexander MacGillivray, Costas E. Synolakis, Chaim Benjamini, Jorg Keller, Hanan J. Kisch, Andreas Klugel, Johannes van der Plicht. — Journal of Archaeological Science. — 2008. — 35. — p. 191-212. The explosive eruption at Santorini in the Aegean Sea during the second millennium BCE was the largest Holocene volcanic upheaval in the Eastern Mediterranean...
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Radiocarbon. — 2009. — Vol 51, Nr 2. — p. 397–411. Deposits from the Minoan Santorini (Thera) eruption in the eastern Mediterranean region constitute the most important regional stratigraphic marker in the chronological perplexity of the 2nd millennium BCE. Extensive tsunami deposits were discovered in Crete at the Minoan archaeological site of Palaikastro, containing reworked...
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The Antiquaries Journal. — 1969. — Vol. 49, Issue 1. — p. 22–29. The paper pleads for an end to persistent misuse of the traditional ‘Three Age’ terminology which still governs the Irish British Bronze Age, and for acceptance of work of the past decade which has either been ignored or misunderstood. Uniform terms of reference are needed, fitted to the new attitudes. Hawkes's...
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A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Division of the Humanities in Candidacy for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. — The University of Chicago, 2004. — 731 pp. This study comprises the first comprehensive examination of the archaeological and historical aspects of the development of the fortification strategies...
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Journal of Archaeological Science. — 2018. — Volume 97. — pp. 125-136. The morphological similarities/dissimilarities between antler and bone-made cheekpieces have been employed in several studies to construct a relative chronology for Bronze Age Eurasia. Believed to constitute a part of the horse bit, the cheekpieces appear in ritual contexts everywhere from the Mycenaean Shaft...
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Trabajos de Prehistoria. — 1990. — Vol. 47 — pp. 63-101. La Provincia Metalúrgica Circumpóntica representaba un sistema de centros de producción de cobre, bronces arsenicales y objetos de bronce de morfología similar, estrechamente interconectados. Este amplio sistema jugó sin duda, un papel central en el Viejo Mundo durante más de un milenio y medio (desde la mitad del IV al...
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Trabajos de Prehistoria. — 2008. — 65, No 2 — pp. 73-93. The stock-breeding cultures of the Eurasian “steppe belt” covered approximately 7-8 million square km 2 from the Lower Danube in the West to Manchuria in the East (a distance of more than 8000 km). The initial formation of the “steppe belt” cultures coincided with the flourishing of the Carpatho-Balkan metallurgical...
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Archaeologia Baltica. Vol. 8: Weapons, weaponry and man (in memorian Vytautas Kazakevicius) / ed. by Bliujiene A. — Klaipeda, 2007. — pp. 39-46. Bronze weapons hint not only at the intensity and effectiveness of warfare in particular societies, but, even more, they may reveal the identity of warriors as a separate group within society. Over most of Europe weaponry is one of the...
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Cambridge University Press, 2015. — 227 pp. — ISBN 978-1-107-01099-4. For more than one thousand years, people from every corner of the Greco-Roman world sought the hope for a blessed afterlife through initiation into the Mysteries of Demeter and Kore at Eleusis. In antiquity itself and in our memory of antiquity, the Eleusinian Mysteries stand out as the oldest and most...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 42 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 767-785. This article studies Bronze Age Poland, which served as the eastern section of the most culturally advanced region of Europe. It first examines the Early Bronze Age and the Únětice culture, which slowly improved its metallurgy. The article then examines the Middle...
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Białystok: Białostockie Towarzystwo Naukowe, 1997. — 188 s. — (Prace Białostockiego Towarzystwa Naukowego; nr 36). — ISBN 83-907455-1-8. Głównym zadaniem tego opracowania jest, najkrócej rzecz ujmując, przedstawienie udokumentowanej źródłowo charakterystyki zjawisk kulturowych stwierdzonych w określonym w tytule czasie i regionie, oraz próba odtworzenia ówczesnych struktur...
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Third Millennium BC Abrupt Climate Change and Old World Social Collapse, held at Kemer, Turkey, September 19-24, 1994. — Springer, 1996. — 728 pp. — (NATO ASI series: Ser. I, Global environmental change; Vol. 49). — ISBN 978-3-642-64476-4. Around 4000 years ago the advanced urban civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and India...
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In: Heyd V., Kulcsár G., Szeverényi V. (eds.) Transitions to the Bronze Age. Interregional Interaction and Socio-Cultural Change in the Third Millennium BC Carpathian Basin and Neighbouring Regions. — Budapest, 2013. — pp. 203-231. This article is dealing with the first series and significance of the copper shaft-hole axes, no doubt the most important metallurgical product of...
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In: Meller H., Bertemes F., Bork H-R. and Risch R. (eds.) 1600 – Kultureller Umbruch im Schatten des Thera-Ausbruchs? (1600 – Cultural change in the shadow of the Thera-Eruption?). — Halle (Saale): Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle, 2013. — pp. 577-593. The two centuries centred on 1600 B. C. fall within the Bedd Branwen Period of the British Early Bronze Age, spanning the...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 140-158. This article surveys the various monuments that were built in Bronze Age Europe. It notes that most of these monuments were for burial purposes, although some were built for celebrations and gods. The discussion emphasises the importance of having a...
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London: British Museum Press, 1995. — 188 p. — ISBN 0-7141-0987-8. Resulting from an international colloquium held at the British Museum in 1992, this book is largely devoted to the subject of Egypt's relations with the Mediterranean world in the second millennium BC. The implications of the remarkable discoveries at Tell el-Dab'a, the site of ancient Avaris (the Hyksos capital...
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In book: 1600 – Cultural change in the shadow of the Thera-Eruption? 4th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany. October 14–16, 2011 in Halle (Saale). — Halle (Saale), 2013. — pp. 567-576. The current state of documentation allows us to present only an incomplete picture of 16th century B.C. Atlantic France, during the transition from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 39. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 706-722. This article centres on the Bronze Age in Switzerland and the Central Alps, where several geographical zones were considered fit for settlement activity. It describes the start of the Bronze Age as a period of favourable climatic conditions, which...
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The Biblical Archaeologist. — 1987. — Vol. 50, No. 3. — p. 148-177. A brief look at the succession of cultures in ancient Palestine might almost convert us to a cyclical view of history. It seems that civilizations rose briefly, only to fall, then repeated the process over and over. In this series for Biblical Archaeologist we have already surveyed the first such cycle (Richard...
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New York, "Routledge", 2006, -320 p. Following Oliver Dickinson’s successful The Aegean Bronze Age, The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age is an up-to-date synthesis of the period between the collapse of the Bronze Age civilisation in the thirteenth and twelfth centuries bc, and the great advances towards Greek civilisation in the eighth century bc. Breaking away from outmoded...
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Satu Mare - Studii şi Comunicări. Seria Archeologie. — 2012. — Nr. XXVIII / 1 — p. 211-229. The present paper tries to address the problem of mobile craftsmen in the Bronze Age of southeastern Europe by having a close look at their main tools: casting moulds. The starting points are two moulds for socketed axes discovered at Mediaş-Cetate, a hill settlement situated in eastern...
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A Thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University. — Ankara, 2003. — 184 pp. This study aims to investigate the settlement patterns of Altinova in the Early Bronze Age and its reflection to social and cultural phenomena. Altinova, which is the most arable plain in Eastern Anatolia, is situated in the borders of Elazig province....
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ScARF (Scottish Archaeological Research Framework) Panel Report, 2012. — 175 pp. The panel remit was to review critically the current state of knowledge and consider promising areas of future research into Chalcolithic and Bronze Age Scotland. This was undertaken with a view to improved understanding of all aspects of what happened in Scotland from the appearance of metallurgy...
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A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Anthropology) in The University of Michigan, 2010. — xviii + 533 p. This dissertation develops a general anthropological method for studying ‘middle-range societies’ (which includes ‘tribes,’ ‘chiefdoms,’ and ‘ranked’ societies) and applies it to the Middle Bronze Age...
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London: Humphrey Milford, 1937. — 124 p; with plates. This study,undertaken at the suggestion of Professor George A. Reisner, was originally intended to deal solely with the stelae of the First Intermediate Period found during his various excavating campaigns in the Naga-ed-Der group of cemeteries. That object has remained the primary purpose of the work, and the book includes...
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Thesis for the degree of Doctorate of Philosophy. — Durham University, 2002. — 312 p. The chronology of the Aegean Late Bronze Age is a vigorously contested area of archaeological study, with "high" and "low" schemes emerging over the last three decades. The chronological lynchpin for this period is the catastrophic eruption of Thera (Santorini), at a point in the mature Late...
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Radiocarbon. — 1989. — Vol. 31, No 3 — p. 1003–1009. Radiocarbon dates of the Vucedol culture range from its earliest beginnings at Vucedol and Pivnica to its late phase at Vinkovci, Eastern Slavonia, Hrustovaca, northwest Bosnia, Parte, Slovenia and Rudine, northwest Croatia. Recent 14 C analyses are discussed and compared to corresponding dates outside the scope of the...
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In: Dzięgielewski K., Przybyła M.S., Gawlik A. (eds). Migration in Bronze and Early Iron Age Europe (Prace Archeologiczne No. 63 Studies). — Kraków, 2010. — pp. 9-35. Article gives a review of phenomena from the European Bronze and Early Iron Ages, which have been explained by the migratory scenarios. It recaps also the current stage of discussion on migration as an explanatory...
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Статья // European Journal of Archaeology. — 2015. — № 0 (0) — Pp. 1–25. In the second millennium cal BC, a new metal conquered Europe: the alloy of copper and tin that improved the quality of tools and weapons. This development, we argue, initiated a framework for a new political economy. We explore how a political economy approach may help understand the European Bronze Age...
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Cambridge University Press, 2010. — 303 p. — ISBN 978-0-521-76466-7. The Bronze Age was a formative period in European history when the organization of landscapes, settlements, and economies reached a new level of complexity. This book presents the first in-depth, comparative study of household, economy, and settlement in three microregions: the Mediterranean (Sicily), central...
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Anatolian Studies. — 2002. — Vol. 52. — pp. 75–109. The historic series of excavations of Hisarlik-Troy have been continued over the last 15 years by a collaboration between teams from the universities of Tubingen and Cincinnati with fruitful results. Over the year 2001 however the director, Manfred Korfmann, attracted sharp criticism from colleagues, largely through the medium of...
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PhD thesis. — Amsterdam School for Culture and History, 2014. — 2 vol. (583 p.) (For copyright reasons, some of the illustrations in the dissertation have been blanked out). The main subject of this dissertation is the Mycenaean archaeological evidence from the south-eastern Aegean. The term "Mycenaean" is typically used to refer to the dominant archaeological culture of the...
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Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. — Mainz am Rhein, 2004. — s. 221-236. ln diesem Beitrag wollen wir den archäologischen Hinweisen auf den Streitwagengebrauch im Zentrum der eurasischen Steppe mit besonderem Augenmerk auf den Raum zwischen Wolga, Ural und Kasachstan nachgehen.
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London: Bernard Quaritch, 1906. — 172 p. About 600 metres due nortli of the preliistoric Palace of Knossos begins the rise of a flat-topped hill, here traversed hy a long line of Roman walling, from wliich the neighbouring hamlet, sole survivor of the ancient city, gains its name of Makryteichos. The hill itself is known as Zafer Papoura (ToG Zacfiep t) Tranovpa) and on its...
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd; New York : The Macmillan Company, 1901. — 106 p. This work is reproduced by permission from the Journal of Hellenic Studies.
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1921. — 808 p., with plates. The excavations carried out by me from 1900 onwards on the site of Knossos, which brought to light the prehistoric Palace and its dependencies, were provisionally described in my somewhat full and copiously illustrated Reports in the Annual of the British School at Athens. Of the extent of the great building the view...
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1927. — 390 p., with plates. Since 1921, when the First Volume of this work was published, the active researches set on foot by me to clear up moot points and to enlarge the horizon in many directions have been carried on almost continuously. The excavation of Knossos itself may almost be said to have renewed its youth. The results, indeed, have...
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1928. — 490 p., with plates. Content: 'House of the Chancel Screen' and 'Royal Villa'. The North-East House and the import of its contents. The 'House of the Frescoes'. Influence of natural and other designs of M.M.III wallpaintings on Late Minoan ceramic decoration. The 'Little Palace' and its Pillar Cult. Extension of the Town of Knossos....
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1930. — 617 p., with plates. In the Second Volume of this work, issued in two parts, a good deal of space was reserved for a survey of the neighbouring town houses and dependencies of the Palace. It was also thought desirable to take a more general survey of Knossos in its geographical relations, its position with regard to Aegean traffic, and...
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1935. — 442 p., with plates. Just forty years from the beginning of my first exploration of the site of Knossos it has been given me to complete this final Volume of the 'Palace of Minos'.
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1935. — XVI, S. 381 - 1018, LXIX Bl. Contents: The 'Camp-Stool' Fresco of the North-West Sanctuary Hall. Long-robed priestly and Royal. Discovery in the "Initiatory Area" of lapis-lazuli cylinder with early chaldaean connexions. The minoan genii and their relation to chapter. Fresh discovey of a chryselephantine. Retrospect of minoan...
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London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1936. — 221 p. It has been fairly claimed for it that The Palace of Minos, in addition to its local aspects regarding the excavations at Knossos, is in a certain degree an Encyclopaedia of the whole range of Minoan culture so far brought within our knowledge.
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Annals of the Association of American Geographers. — 1998. — No 88(1) — pp. 107–125. This paper considers the economic and environmental impacts of emerging regional commerce that accompanied the rise and collapse of early Near Eastern urbanism. We integrate regional data on settlement and vegetation with detailed evidence of rural agriculture from two Bronze Age villages in...
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European Journal of Archaeology. — 2015. — No 18 (1) — pp. 60–89. For a long time, assessments and evaluations of the western Anatolian Early Bronze Age (EBA) have only been based on the excavation results of Tarsus, Karatas-̧ Semayük, Beycesultan, Demircihüyük, and Troy. However, excavations and surface surveys carried out in the last two decades have increased our knowledge...
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In book: M. Jaeger, J. Czebreszuk, K.P. Fischl (eds.) Enclosed Space — Open Society. Contact and Exchange in the Context of Bronze Age Fortified Settlements in Central Europe. SAO/SPEŚ 9. — Poznań–Bonn, 2012. — pp. 39-51. “Fortified settlement” and “defensive structures” as technical terms raise some theoretical problems. A few settlement types and protective system forms from...
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In book: 1600 – Cultural change in the shadow of the Thera-Eruption? 4th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany. October 14–16, 2011 in Halle (Saale). — Halle (Saale), 2013. — pp. 355-371. Around the time of the Thera eruption important transformations occurred in the Carpathian Basin. This is the so-called Koszider Period, which corresponds to the last phase of the...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 31 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 550-570. This article studies the Bronze Age of the Low Countries, which are situated in north-west Europe. It introduces A. E. Giffen, whose quadrant method for the excavation of barrows provided most of the data on the Bronze Age of the Low...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 1 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 1-13. This article introduces the Bronze Age in Europe. It starts with a review of the two books that were considered as the main references for the European Bronze Age, and then notes the changes which occurred in archaeology that provided more...
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In book: K. Boyle, C. Renfrew, and M. Levine, eds. Ancient Interactions: East and West in Eurasia, Vol. 1 — Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs, 2002. — pp. 161–170. This paper addresses the evidence for the development of regional economic interaction and the changes in geographic distribution of Eneolithic and Bronze Age societies; two contributing factors to the broader...
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University of California Press, 2008. — 214 pp. — ISBN 978-0-520-25689-7. Offering a fresh archaeological interpretation, this work reconceptualizes the Bronze Age prehistory of the vast Eurasian steppe during one of the most formative and innovative periods of human history. Michael D. Frachetti combines an analysis of newly documented archaeological sites in the Koksu River...
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Antiquity. — 2009. — No 83. — pp. 1023–1037. Does the riding of horses necessarily go with the emergence of Eurasian pastoralism? Drawing on their fine sequence of animal bones from Begash, the authors think not. While pastoral herding of sheep and goats is evident from the Early Bronze Age, the horse appears only in small numbers before the end of the first millennium BC. Its...
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A Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. — University of Sheffield, Department of Archaeology, 2014. — 233 pp. This thesis explores the craft of metallurgy in the British Bronze Age through an examination and analysis of metalworking tools. The goal of this research was to reassemble the Bronze Age metalsmithing toolkit based on an understanding of the craft...
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In book: 1600 – Cultural change in the shadow of the Thera-Eruption? 4th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany. October 14–16, 2011 in Halle (Saale). — Halle (Saale), 2013. — pp. 37-48. The Minoan Eruption of Santorini in the Late Bronze Age was one of the strongest experienced by humankind. Before the eruption, the shape of Santorini was similar to the one it has today:...
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Dacia. — 2013. — LVII. — pp. 23-64. The present study aims to unfold the results of the rescue archaeological excavations carried out during 2011-2012 in several barrows located around Ploieşti, in Ariceştii-Rahtivani (2), Păuleşti (3), Strejnicu, Blejoi. It also includes the main data regarding two mounds investigated in Blejoi and Ariceştii-Rahtivani after 2000. In 2011 we...
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Proceedings of the International Workshop “Socio-Environmental Dynamics over the Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II (14th–18th March 2011)” in Kiel. Volume 2 — Bonn: Verlag Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH, 2012. — 263 pp. — (Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie, Band 206). — ISBN 978-3-7749-3764-2. In March 2011 the Graduate School “Human Development in...
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Mouton & Co, 1965. — 681 pp. Foreword: "This volume should not be considered Part II of the author's Prehistory of Eastern Europe (1956). Since it was central Europe that played the formative role on the continent during the Bronze Age, the present monograph takes on a wider scope and is independent of the former book. This monograph is meant for the student of European...
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Aarbøger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie. Udgivne af det Kongelige Nordiske oldskriftselskab 1944 - København 1945 – 296s. Idet indre og vestlige Jylland, mest paa lavt Terrain längs med Aadale, ved mindre Vandlob og gamle Sobredder, ligger i hundred- vis af lave Gravhoje, ofte samlet i Grupper paa en halv Snes Stykker eller flere. Forst sent blev man klar over, at disse...
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Cluj-Napoca: Mega, 2014. — 316 pp. — ISBN 978-606-543-557-5. The Bronze Age tells occupy the highest position in the settlement system of the Carpathian Basin and can be compared to contemporary sites from the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations. Their development covers a period of approximately 1000 years, between circa 2500 and 1500 B.C. Dr. Ivan Ordentlich (1934 – 2011)...
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Ziridava Studia Archaeologica. — 2012. — 26/1. — pp. 61-81. The article discusses not only the evidence of military conflicts and implicitly warriors within the Lower Mureş Valley during the Late Bronze Age chronological horizon, but it is also a historiographical and theoretical approach of the topic. Fortifications researched in Sântana, Corneşti and Munar are the first...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 14 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 248-265. This article discusses several ways of rethinking cosmology in the Bronze Age using a north European perspective, and identifies two basic premises for studying human life-worlds using archaeological means, namely material culture and the immaterial world. Next, it...
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Cambridge: University press, 1930. — 259 pp., ill. Classical Archaeology studies from the Archaeology classic. Bronze Age cross-cultural analysis. Contents: The Implications of the Bronze Age. Metallurgy and trade. Typology. The Early Bronze Age. The Middle Bronze Age. The Late Bronze Age. Races.
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Oxbow Books, 2016. — 240 p. Beyond Thalassocracies aims to evaluate and rethink the manner in which archaeologists approach, understand, and analyze the various processes associated with culture change connected to interregional contact, using as a test case the world of the Aegean during the Late Bronze Age (c. 1600–1100 BC). The 14 chapters compare and contrast various aspects...
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In: Knapp A.B., Van Dommelen P. (Eds.) The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean. — Cambridge University Press, 2015. — pp. 111-138. This study addresses what appear to be similar modes of external interaction experienced by societies of the Anatolian Euphrates valley and the northwestern Levant on the one hand, and on the other the southern Levant...
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Oxford: Archaeopress, 2015. — 809 pp. — ISBN 978-1-78491-236-9. Copper is the first metal to play a large part in human history. This work is devoted to the history of metallurgical production in Northern Eurasia during the Bronze Age, based on experiments carried out by the author and analyses of ancient slag, ore and metal. It should be noted that archaeometallurgical studies...
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Bonn : Habelt, 2006 — 511 S. — (Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde ; Bd. 82) — ISBN 3-7749-3403-7 Ziel der Arbeit war es, mit Hilfe einer Typologie, die Streitäxte und Streitaxtfragmente der Früh- und Mittelkupferzeit im westlichen Mitteleuropa chronologisch einzuordnen. Somit lag der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit auf der Erstellung einer metrischen Merkmalanalyse der Äxte, die...
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Doctoral dissertation (monograph). — Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2013. — 253 pp. — ISBN 978-952-10-9268-8. The aims of the study were both to determine whether a systematic analysis of the quantity and quality of the copper and bronze metal finds in all their forms in the preserved metal record from the Minoan Neopalatial and the Mycenaean Final Palatial and Postpalatial...
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London: The Medici Society, 1915. — 270 p. — (Handbooks to Ancient Civilizations Series) In this book I have endeavoured to give as succinctly X as possible a general account of the remains of the ancient Aegean civilization of the Bronze Age, the dominant culture of prehistoric Greece, which has been revealed to us by the excavations of Schliemann, Evans, Halbherr, and others,...
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Budapest. Az orsz. Rég. és Embertani Társulat Kiadványa, 1892. — 286 oldalak, 55 tábla, 952 képpel. E mü eredeti tervéhez híven, a jelen kötet magyarhoni bronzkorunk fönmaradt emlékeiről kiván áttekintést nyújtani. Az összeállitás jó része még 1876-ból való, mikor alkalmam volt a budapesti ősrégészeti congressusra küldött vidéki gyűjteményekkel behatóan foglalkozni. Ugyan e...
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Esztergom: Alexandre Beszédes, éditeur, 1877. — 75 p., 24 tables. Illustrées par le procédé albertotypique par Alexandre Beszédes photographe à Esztergom. Les objets contenus dans cet ouvrage ont été exposés au Musée national par les musées de province et les amateurs hongrois à l’occasion de la VIII. session du Congrès international d’Anthropologie et d’Archéologie...
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In: Renfrew C., Boyd M.J., Morley I. (eds). Death Rituals, Social Order and the Archaeology of Immortality in the Ancient World. 'Death Shall Have No Dominion'. — Cambridge University Press, 2015. — pp. 328-347. Various studies of Bronze Age mortuary evidence in the southern Ural Mountains of Russia have highlighted an apparent similarity with religious rites described in the...
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Antiquity. – 2007. – V. 81. – P. 353–367. Cultural interactions in central Russia are famously complex, but of very wide significance. Within the social changes they imply are contained key matters for Europe and Asia: the introduction of Indo-Europeans and other languages, the horse and the chariot, and the transition towards nomadism. Of crucial importance to future research is...
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In: S. Hansen, A. Hauptmann, I. Motzenbäcker, E. Pernicka (eds.), Von Majkop bis Trialeti. Gewinnung und Verbreitung von Metallen und Obsidian in Kaukasien in 4.-2. Jt. v. Chr., Beiträge des Internationalen Symposiums in Berlin vom 1.-3. Juni 2006, Bonn. — pp. 297-316. "In the following I shall concentrate upon the social utilisation of metal objects and their “visible...
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In: A. Harding and J. Carman (eds) Ancient Warfare. — The History Press, 2010. — pp. 157-173. The deposition of Bronze Age bronze shields was far from rare - and it was not only shields that were deposited: other types of weaponry, particularly swords, also found their way into the ground in large numbers. It was by no means only weapons and armour of which this is true...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 370-381. This article takes a look at trade and exchange in Bronze Age Europe. It first determines whether the word ‘trade’ should be used in a prehistoric context, since it implies an economic system that uses money and has markets – two aspects which were...
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Archaeology International. — 2008-2009. — No 12. — pp. 22-26. Cloth Cultures in Prehistoric Europe is a Postdoctoral Fellowship project awarded to Susanna Harris by the British Academy. Its aim is to bring together and examinevevidence for textiles and animal skins in prehistoric Europe from the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Several case studies are being examined as part of this...
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European Journal of Archaeology. — 2012. — No 15 (1). — pp. 61-97. The aim of this research is to compare the cloth cultures of Europe and Egypt in the Bronze Age and New Kingdom. The comparison focuses on the fourteenth century BC and includes four geographically separate areas including the oak coffin burials of southern Scandinavia, the Hallstatt salt mines of central Europe,...
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American Journal of Physical Anthropology. — 2004. — No 124 — pp. 199–222. Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical...
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Antiquity. — 1988. — No 62. — pp. 435-451. A knowledge of pyrotechnology - the skills of creating and working with high temperatures - is attested for later prehistoric Europe first by refined ceramics in the Neolithic, then by copper and bronze metallurgy. But what about the third aspect of pyrotechnology - faience, glass and other vitreous materials? New work reported in this...
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In: Heyd V., Kulcsár G., Szeverényi V. (eds.) Transitions to the Bronze Age. Interregional Interaction and Socio-Cultural Change in the Third Millennium BC Carpathian Basin and Neighbouring Regions. — Budapest, 2013. — pp. 9-66. What is the Early Bronze Age after all? When we are looking at the various European countries and address this question at regional level, we are...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 3. — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 47-67. This article studies Europe during the period between 2500 and 2200 BC. It first studies 2500 BC, which was when the Bell Beaker phenomenon and the Early Bronze Age occurred. The next section focuses on the period of the ‘International Spirit’ that occurred within the...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 102-120. This article discusses burials and the burial practices during the Bronze Age. It examines the state of research on the study of burials and then considers the overall trends in burial custom. The article discusses the issue of the identity of buried...
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Cambridge University Press, 2018. — x + 253 p. — ISBN 978-1-107-18556-2. Warfare in Bronze Age Society takes a fresh look at warfare and its role in reshaping Bronze Age society. The Bronze Age represents the global emergence of a militarized society with a martial culture, materialized in a package of new efficient weapons that remained in use for millennia to come. Warfare...
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Doctoral thesis. — Durham University, 2002. — 440 p. The body armour used in the Late Bronze Age Near East took the form of multiple, evenly formed small pieces of bronze or organic material laced together in rows and affixed to a linen or leather backing. The research in this thesis has examined the existing literature concerning this form of armour and the materials, possible...
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Anatolian Studies. — 2013. — 63. — pp. 17–33. Excavators have put forward opposing interpretations of the architectural sequence at the Early Bronze Age site of Troy. C.W. Blegen suggested that freestanding ‘megaron’ houses determined the visual pattern of the earliest settlement, while M.O. Korfmann compared Troy I to the circular layout of the Early Bronze Age site at...
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In: Between the Aegean and Baltic Seas. Prehistory across Borders (Aegaeum 27). — Peeters Publishers, 2007. — pp. 249-258. "Within this paper I will argue that it is not simply an accumulation of more archaeological evidence of warfare that we need, but the models for its understanding. As a point of departure I shall take current models for warfare of pre-state societies in...
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Poznan-Bonn: Wydawnictwo Nauka i Innowacje - Dr Rudolf Habelt GmbH, 2016. — 178 p. This volume is yet another publication in the Studien zur Archäologie in Ostmitteleuropa/Studia nad Pradziejami Europy Środkowej series. It is based on the author’s doctoral dissertation concerning defensive settlements in Central Europe. The latter is one of the major focus areas in the archaeology...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 787-812. This article focuses on Austria and the Czech lands in the Bronze Age, which is divided into four main periods, namely the Early, Middle, Late, and Final Bronze Ages. It first looks at the cultures that evolved in these areas during the Bronze Age,...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 40. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 723-745. This article examines Germany’s cultural diversity during the Bronze Age. It studies the country’s geography, climate, and geology, and differentiates the Bronze Age of central and southern Germany from eastern Germany and northern Germany, which...
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A Thesis submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts. — Texas A&M University, 2007. — 435 pp. The production and trade in copper and bronze was one of the major features of the complex societies in the Near East and Mediterranean during the third to first millennia B.C. While...
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Cambridge University Press, 2018. — 356 p. Creativity is an integral part of human history, yet most studies focus on the modern era, leaving unresolved questions about the formative role that creativity has played in the past. This book explores the fundamental nature of creativity in the European Bronze Age. Considering developments in crafts that we take for granted today, such...
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In: Dzięgielewski K., Przybyła M.S., Gawlik A. (eds). Migration in Bronze and Early Iron Age Europe (Prace Archeologiczne No. 63 Studies). — Kraków, 2010. — pp. 47-61. Author defines generally the term of ‘migration’ and then discusses selected examples of migrations in Copper and Early Bronze Age Europe (supposed migrations of nomadic herders from the Northern Pontic steppe to...
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Analecta Archaeologica Ressoviensia. — 2011. — Vol. 6 — pp. 11–54. Author considers interdisciplinary nature of archaeological studies. The most outstanding scholars in the early stages of the development of archaeology as a scientific and academic discipline were mainly highly educated men with broad interests, combining knowledge of various sciences. For this reason they did...
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A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology. — University of Arkansas, 2013. — 288 pp. This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in...
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Oxford: B.A.R., 1982. — 253 p. Illustrated throughout, 100 figures. — (BAR International Series; 145). In 1900 Paul Gaudin, an engineer in the employment of the Ottoman Sultan, began to excavate a prehistoric cemetery at a location called Yortan near Gelembe, ca. 16.5 km north-east of Kirkagac; and ca. 55 km south of Balikesir. In October of the following year a more extensive...
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Quaternary Research. — 2010. — No 74 — pp. 207–215. The alluvial deposits near Gibala-Tell Tweini provide a unique record of environmental history and food availability estimates covering the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. The refined pollen-derived climatic proxy suggests that drier climatic conditions occurred in the Mediterranean belt of Syria from the late...
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PLoS ONE. — August 2013. — Volume 8, Issue 8 — 10 pp. The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event’s retrieval began in the late 19th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs...
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In: A. Sagona, ed. A View from the Highlands: Archaeological Studies in Honour of Charles Burney. (Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement 12). — Leuven: Peeters, 2004. — pp. 539–556. The first and second ’radiocarbon revolutions’ have resulted in the separation of ancient world chronology. On the one hand, the northern periphery of the Near East and Europe is reliant on...
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In: A. Hauptmann, E. Pernicka, T. Rehren, and Ü. Yalçin, eds. The Beginnings of Metallurgy. Proceedings of the International Conference ‘The Beginnings of Metallurgy,’ Bochum 1995. — Bochum: Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, 1999. — pp. 67–101. The dating of the Transcaucasian metal artefacts and complexes containing them is in many cases possible by the consideration of the dates of...
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Oxford: Archaeopress Archaeology, 2015. — vi+168 pp. — ISBN 978-1-78491. This study challenges current modelling of Bronze Age tell communities in the Carpathian Basin in terms of the evolution of functionally-differentiated, hierarchical or ‘proto-urban’ society under the influence of Mediterranean palatial centres. It is argued that the narrative strategies employed in...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 23 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 414–436. This article discusses Bronze Age metalworking and the use of bronze and copper. It first studies the different approaches to prehistoric metalworking, including the sub-discipline of archaeometallurgy. The article then reviews the early evidence for copper mining,...
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South Asian archaeology 1999: proceedings of the fifteenth International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, held at the Universiteit Leiden, 5-9 July 1999 / ed. by Ellen M. Raven. — Groningen: Forsten, 2008. — Pp. 15-30. Following the remarkable results attained by the 'Archaeological Map of the Murghab Delta' project as well as by M....
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In: Kovacs G., Kulcsar G. (eds.) Ten Thousand Years along the Middle Danube. Life and Early Communities from Prehistory to History (Varia Archaeologica Hungarica XXVI). — Budapest, 2011. — pp. 211-239. With the exception of its westernmost and easternmost areas, Transdanubia was occupied by the Transdanubian Encrusted Pottery culture during the Middle Bronze Age (RB A2). The...
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Journal of Archaeological Science. — 2001. — 28. — p. 481-486. Ground sections of the teeth of five humans from the burial grounds of Bronze Age Kalmykia (Russia) were studied. In the teeth of an old man and a child we found no cementum layers. In three other individuals (15-30 years old), analysis of the cementum layers allowed us to estimate age-at-death and season of death. The...
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Translated from Russian by V. A. Tikhomirov. — Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza (Poznań); Instytut Prahistorii, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza (Poznań); Instytut Wschodni, 1993. — 138 pp. — (Baltic-Pontic-Studies, vol.1). ISBN 83-86094-00-1. ISSN 1231-0344. Editor’s Foreword: The first project of the mutual Polish-Ukrainian studies of the oldest history of the...
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Scienze dell’antichità: Storia archeologia antropologia. — 2009. — No 15 — pp. 219-239. Focusing on the island of Cyprus, and using both documentary and archaeological evidence from the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, this paper examines the issue of collapse in the context of human migrations. It deals specifically with those peoples whom many scholars see as fleeing from the...
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American Journal of Archaeology. — January 2016. — Vol. 120, No 1 — Pp. 99–149. Explanations for the Late Bronze Age crisis and collapse in the eastern Mediterranean are legion: migrations, predations by external forces, political struggles within dominant polities or system collapse among them, inequalities between centers and peripheries, climatic change and natural...
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Routledge, 2016. — xl + 399 p. — (Routledge Revivals). — ISBN 978-1-138-18862-4. The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia edited by Philip L. Kohl collates translated articles from soviet findings of Bronze Age and Aeneolithic remains in Central Asia. Originally published in 1981, these articles include the latest discoveries at the time of publication such as the Murghab Delta...
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Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2010. — 322 p. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, vol. 15). — ISBN 83-86094-14-1. The issues outlined in the above volume of Baltic-Pontic Studies (BPS) presented here, can be said to generate several important and complex questions among which, one relating to the topogenesis of 'corded' ornamentation on the bio-cultural borderlands of east...
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Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2002. — 120 pp. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, vol. 11). — ISBN 83-86094-10-9. Fluted maces (Kannelierte Streitkolben) have not been an object of a monographic study so far. The reasons for this deficiency was the paucity of assemblage finds (mainly grave ones) and the fact that they occurred in the borderland between the East and West of...
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Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, 1994. — 248 pp. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, vol. 2). — ISBN 83-86094-01-Х. (Отсутствуют с. 94-134). This volume takes up the controversial problems of the early agrarian stage of "pastoral cultures". It contains the contribution of authors who are united in their conviction of the need to analyze the "classical" interpretation, which is...
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Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2015. — 427 p. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, vol. 20). — ISBN 83-86094-20-6 The present volume of Baltic-Pontic Studies comprises papers reflecting a segment of research into the Podolia cultural interchange of communities genetically related to the drainage basins of the Black and Baltic seas in the 4th/3rd-2nd millennium EC. Accordingly,...
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Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2014. — 242 p. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, vol. 19). — ISBN 83-86094-19-2. The articles presented in vol. 19 Baltic-Pontic Studies (BPS) continue the discussion on 'Pontic Early Bronze Age Civilisations' and their role in the cultural development of prehistoric communities in the Baltic drainage basin or more broadly speaking,...
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Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, 1999. — 304 p. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, vol. 7). — ISBN 83-86094-06-0. This volume of the Baltic Pontic Studies focuses on the results of the research carried out so far into the absolute (radiocarbon) chronology of the area lying between the Vistula and Dnieper or the bio-cultural borderland between the West and East of Europe. Absolute...
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Poznan (Poland), 2003. — 458 pp. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies; Volume 12). — ISBN 83-86094-11-7. This volume of the Baltic-Pontic Studies is a record of investigations carried out under the research project begun earlier in vol. 7 (“The Foundations of radiocarbon chronology of cultures between the Vistula and Dnieper: 3150-1850 BC”, Poznan 1999). Here, the approach is broader in...
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Adam Mickiewicz University: Institute of Eastern Studies, 2013. — 246 p. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, Vol. 18). — ISBN 83-86094-18-4. In 2009, the 14th volume of Baltic-Pontic Studies (BPS) ran a series of papers summing up the state of research at that time into the routes between the Baltic and Black seas between the 4th and 1st mill. BC. They are an expression of an early...
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Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici (SMEA). — 1997. — 39/2. — p. 253-266. For a long time the appearance of the Indo-European element of the Armenian people was regarded as a consequence of a certain wave of Indo-European migrations from their original homeland, either in the XII B.C. or much later. The western route of migration from the Balkanic area still dominates... The...
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In: F. Mandl / H. Stadler (Hrsg.). Archäologie in den Alpen. Alltag und Kult. Forschungsberichte der ANISA Bd. 3, Nearchos Bd. 19, Haus im Ennstal, 105-116. Any production unit requires certain means of production and subsistence. If these are not avail­able in sufficient amount and quality production stops. Production units tied to a certain place, such as mining facilities, are...
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Lwów: Towarzystwo Naukowe, 1928. — 158 s. + 3 mapy + XIII tablic. "Celem tej pracy jest dać syntetyczny zarys wczesnej, starsze i środkowej epoki bronzu w Polsce. (I, II i III-go okresu bronzu). Stanowi ona dalszy etap w mojej pracy nad prehistoryą Polski i nawiązuje się bezpośrednio do mojej książki "Młodsza epoka kamienna w Polsce, (Neolit)" Lwów 1924. Pracą niniejszą...
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New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016. — 218 pp. — ISBN 978-1-107-10754-0. In this book, Kramer-Hajos examines the Euboean Gulf region in Central Greece to explain its flourishing during the postpalatial period. Providing a social and political history of the region in the Late Bronze Age, she focuses on the interactions between this “provincial” coastal area and the...
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In book: Kristiansen K., Šmejda L., Turek J. (Eds.) Paradigm Found. Archaeological Theory Present, Past And Future. Essays in Honour of Evžen Neustupný. — Oxbow Books, 2015. — pp. 234-247. "The thesis of our chapter is simply stated. Despite considerable quantitative continuity between the Neolithic and Bronze Age of Europe, which we do not deny, dramatic changes in the...
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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. — 449 pp. — ISBN 978-0-521-84363-8. Winner of the 2006 SAA Book Award Beginning with state formation and urbanization in the Near East c. 3000 BC and ending in Central and Northern Europe c. 1000-500 BC, the Bronze Age marks an heroic age of travels and transformations throughout Europe. Kristian Kristiansen and Thomas Larsson...
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Rozprawa doktorska. — Akademia Górniczo – Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie, 2008. — 147 s. Jednym z nowoczesnych rozwiązań w zakresie badań nad technologią starożytnych odlewów /badania składu chemicznego odlewów, badania materiałoznawcze form i rdzeni, itp./ jest wykorzystanie szerokich możliwości obecnej techniki, która pozwala ująć zachodzące zjawiska w sposób jakościowy i...
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Research Master Thesis. — Leiden: Sidestone Press, 2008. — 171 pp. — ISBN 978-90-8890-015-0. Almost fifty years ago J.J. Butler started his research to trace the possible remains of a Bronze Age metalworkers workshop in the Netherlands. Yet, while metalworking has been deduced on the ground of the existence regional types of axes and some scarce finds related to metalworking,...
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Nitra, 2012. — 434 pp. — (Archaeologica Slovaca Monographiae, Communicationes 13). — ISBN 978-80-89315-41-3. V tomto roku si pripomíname významné životné jubileum popredného reprezentanta slovenskej i európskej archeológie – univ. prof. PhDr. Václava Furmánka, DrSc. V tejto súvislosti je zaiste legitímna aj otázka: aká je jeho účasť na formovaní podôb modernej slovenskej...
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Budapest: Archaeolingua, 2009. — 526 pp. — (Varia Archaeologica Hungarica, XXIII). — ISBN 978-963-7391-95-8; HU – ISSN 0237–9090. In contrast to most prehistorians working in Central, Eastern and South-East Europe, Hungarian scholars generally link the onset of the Early Bronze Age to the cultural changes and the appearance of new cultures following the disintegration of the...
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Beograd, 1984. — 401 p. Vorwort. Einleitung . Sudzone . Die Vinkovci-Kultur. Die Maros-Kultur. Die Vatin-Kultur. Die Verbiciora-Kultur. Mittel- und westzone . Die Nako-Kultur. Die Nyireseg-Kultur. Die Somogyavar-Kultur. Komplex der Nagyrev-Kultur. Die Hatvan-Kultur. Die Vatya-Kultur. Die Fuzesabony-Kultur. Die "Kisapostag-Problematik". Die Kultur der Inkrustieren Keramik. Nordzone...
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Praehistorische Zeitschrift. — 2017. — Vol. 92, Iss. 1. — S. 40–65. This study concerns the function and role of Bronze Age chariots and charioteers as reflected in funerary contexts in the southern Urals. This work focuses on: 1) the presentation of archaeological data recently obtained from the excavation of a burial ground near the village of Stepnoye (southern Trans-Urals,...
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Philadelphia: University of Pensylvania Press, 2008. - 248 pages. English. In ancient and medieval times, the Silk Road was of great importance to the transport of peoples, goods, and ideas between the East and the West. The majority of the Silk Road routes passed through the Eurasian Steppe, whose nomadic people were participants and mediators in its economic and cultural...
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Antiquity. — No 80 — 2006. — pp. 638–645. The author presents new radiocarbon dates for chariot burials found in the region between Europe and the Urals, showing them to belong to the twentieth-eighteenth centuries BCE. These early dates, which pre-empt the appearance of the war chariot in the Near East, are transforming the ancient history of Eurasia and the early...
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Proceedings (International Workshop September 23 - 25, 2016, Georgia). — Tbilisi, 2016. — ISBN 978-9941-465-48-2. The Aegean world got directly acquainted with the Southern Caucasus at the early stage of the Late Bronze Age. As it seems the Aegean world got interested in the Caucasus especially in the epoch preceded the Trojan war and this interest was reflected in the history...
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Tel Aviv: Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. — October 2013. — Volume 40, Number 2 — pp. 149-175. A core drilled from the Sea of Galilee was subjected to high resolution pollen analysis for the Bronze and Iron Ages. The detailed pollen diagram (sample/~40 yrs) was used to reconstruct past climate changes and human impact on the vegetation of the...
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TÜBA-AR. — 2009. — No 12 — pp. 165-174. The site of Göltepe, an Early Bronze Age settlement situated in the Central Taurus region of southern Turkey ca. 2600 BC, represents the first tier of the multi-scale production of metal. A primary industrial activity at the site was the smelting of tin ore, which is evident from ore crushing tools, processed tin-rich powders, hundreds of...
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McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 1999. — 216 pp. — (McDonald Institute Monographs). — ISBN 1-902937-03-1. Until recently our view of the later prehistory of the Eurasian steppe was that of nomadic pastoralist warriors riding out of the grasslands to destroy peaceful agriculturalist communities left lying in their wake. Recent research, however, has revealed a...
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Article // ANTIQUITY. — 1998. — № 72 — Pp. 90-100. The meat and milk of horses are highly valued food products, past and present. Horses were an especially valuable food resource in grassland habitats, which may explain their increased exploitation in the central Eurasian forest steppe during the late Eneolithic. It may also explain the emphasis on horses in final Upper...
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Światowit. — 2006. — Tom. VI (XLVII), Fasc. A. — s. 19-24. Among the collection of antiquities in the National Museum of Warsaw there is a group of Mycenaean vases and a Mycenaean "phi" idol. There is also a small collection of Mycenaean sherds belonging to the Museum Śląskie deposited in the National Museum. The aim of this paper is to publish the sherds, the idol and to publish...
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New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995. — 123 p. This paper seeks to document shapes, materials, and inscriptions for stone vessels either from royal tombs or inscribed with royal names from Dynasty 15 to mid-Dynasty 18 (see Chronology). The resulting Catalogue is not a comprehensive corpus of stone vessels of that period, as examples from private tombs are only...
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The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York in 1993. — 80 p. These studies were undertaken to form a historical and technological context for the large amount ofvitreous material, most ofwhich is now in The Metropolitan Museum ofArt, believed to come from the tomb ofthree foreign wives of Tuthmosis III (ca. 1479—1425 B.c.). The tomb yielded a glass vessel and a large number of...
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Oxbow Books, 2015. — 323 p. Pictures from the Bronze Age are numerous, vivid and complex. There is no other prehistoric period that has produced such a wide range of images spanning from rock art to figurines to decoration on bronzes and gold. Fifteen papers, with a geographical coverage from Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula, examine a wide range of topics reflecting the many...
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Oxbow Books, 2014. — 272 p. How may Bohuslän rock art and landscape be perceived and understood? Since the Bronze Age, the landscape has been transformed by shore displacement but, largely due to misunderstanding and certain ideas about the character of Bronze Age society, rock art research in Tanum has drawn much of its inspiration from the present agrarian landscape. This...
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Satu Mare, 2010. — 198 р. Marcin S. Przybyła An der Grenze der zwei „Welten“– das Kulturbild der polnischen Karpatenzone an der Wende des 2. und 1. Jahrtausends vor Chr. Péter Polgár Neue Angaben zur spätbronzezeitlichen Besiedlung in Südtransdanubien Katalin Jankovits Die reichen Gehänge in Ungarn Guba Szilvia Mehrfache Urnenbestattungen im Gräberfeld von Zagyvapálfalva...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 37. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 668-691. This article examines the Sardinian Bronze Age, which featured a magnified stratification process that led to the formation of complex societies in Sardinia. According to archaeological evidence, the Sardinian Bronze Age included the control of...
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In: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 594-616. The start and end of the Bronze Age in the Iberian Peninsula were marked by two historical events, neither of which greatly affected the communities in the area. This article takes a look at the various societies located in the peninsula, as well as the three main...
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In book: 1600 – Cultural change in the shadow of the Thera-Eruption? 4th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany. October 14–16, 2011 in Halle (Saale). — Halle (Saale), 2013. — pp. 283-302. El Argar, one of the politically and economically most developed societies in Bronze Age Europe, collapses around 1550 B.C.E. All the settlements are abandoned or restructured according...
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In: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 617-631. This article discusses the Bronze Age of the Balearic Islands, which were divided into the Pine Islands and the Gymnesian Islands. It introduces the ‘Talayotic Culture’, which is characterised by monumental buildings that have a square or circular floor plan...
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In book: Iberia. Protohistory of the Far West of Europe: From Neolithic to Roman conquest. — Universidad de Burgos, 2014. — pp. 127-146. In general terms, the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Iberian Peninsula was marked around 2200 by the material culture that appeared after the Chalcolithic societies crisis, and came to an end with the rise of Phoenician colonial activity...
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In book: H. Meller, H.W. Arz, R. Jung, and R. Risch (eds.) 2200 BC - A climatic breakdown as a cause for the collapse of the Old World? — Halle: Landesmuseum fur Vorgeschichte, 2015. — pp. 365-407. The time around 2200 BC was marked in the Iberian Peninsula, and particularly in its southern regions, by profound social, political, and ideological changes. A substantial number of...
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Expedition [publ. by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]. — Winter 2010. — Volume 52, No 3 — pp. 23-32. "In 1988, while visiting the Ürümqi Museum in China, I came upon an exhibition which changed the course of my professional life. At the time, my academic career focused on the philological study of manuscripts from caves at Dunhuang, a site...
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The Journal of Indo-European Studies. — Fall/Winter 2006. — Volume 34, Number 3 & 4 — pp. 273-318. In the summer of 1934, the Swedish archeologist, Folke Bergman, discovered an important Bronze Age burial ground in the desert about a hundred miles to the west of the fabled ruins of Kroraina (Uyghur: Krorän; Modern Standard Mandarin [MSM]: Loulan). This hillock-shaped cemetery...
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Przegląd Archeologiczny. — 2003. — Vol. 51. — p. 123-158. The characteristics of social structures of Bell Beakers and Trzciniec Complex in north-eastern part of Central Europe is presented in the paper. The social life of these groupings was shaped by competition between particular descent-based groups as well as individuals and their families for prestige, status, power and...
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In: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 44. — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 813-836. This article takes a look at Slovakia and Hungary in the Bronze Age, the former being rich in copper, gold, iron, and tin at that time. It first describes the setting and natural conditions of these two countries, and then discusses the chronological systems. The article...
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Paléorient. — 2006. — Vol. 32, No 2 — p. 157-174. Ten crucible fragments collected at a single location on the surface of Altyn-Depe, most probably datable to the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, have been studied and analysed by the means of different techniques. The research provides new information on Middle Bronze Age (Namazga V) copper-based metallurgy at this...
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Anatolian Studies. — 2014. — Vol. 64. — p. 73-93. This paper focuses on the analysis of the cemetery of Demircihöyük-Sarıket, for which exists one of the largest Early Bronze Age funerary datasets published to date in Anatolia. The size and quality of the sample allow the dataset to be approached quantitatively, to determine both normative and anomalous funerary practices, and to...
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Israel Exploration Journal. — 1968. — Vol. 18, No. 2. — p. 65-97. One of the longest and most obscure eras in the history and culture of Palestine is the Middle Bronze Age. Not without reason, the opinions of scholars have been divided on its nature and character, on its beginning and end and on its break-down into periods and phases; even up to this very day it is one of the most...
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Pure and Applied Geophysics. — 2000. — No 157. — p. 1227–1256. Tsunami were generated during the Late Bronze Age (LBA) eruption of the island of Thera, in the southern Aegean Sea, by both caldera collapse, and by the entry of pyroclastic surges:flows and lahars:debris flows into the sea. Tsunami generated by caldera collapse propagated to the west producing deep-sea sedimentary...
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Quaternary International. — 2014. — XXX. — p. 1-17. Comparative analyses of human health and diet are often undertaken for consecutive periods of time which exhibit different social formations or material culture. The aim of this research was to test the link between social transformations and corollary shifts in health or diet. Therefore, oral health and dietary intake were...
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Journal of Archaeological Science. — 2014. — No 42 — pp. 525-538. At the transition from the Middle (2100-1700 BC) to Late Bronze Age (1700-1400 BC) in the central Eurasian steppe, significant changes occurred in patterns of settlement and mortuary practice. Traditional interpretations link these changes to shifts from semi-settled agro-pastoral communities to more mobile forms...
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Prähistorische Zeitschrift. — 2013. — No 88 (1-2) — pp. 152-179. Over more than 150 years of research, Late Bronze Age bell helmets have usually been included in discussions about Bronze Age helmets in general, and are rarely the main topic of discussion. This article discusses in detail and for the first time all known bell helmets and one associated fragment, and aims to shed...
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Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum Mainz. — 2012. — No 59 — pp. 1-50. Bronze Age metal cuirasses are the rarest type of defensive armour in Europe. The total number of 30 cuirasses is, according to their chronology, distribution and decoration, divided into three groups: a Western European, an Eastern Carpathian and a Greek group. Within this article, chronology,...
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The Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). — 2014. — Volume 66, Issue 1 — pp. 171–177. This article focuses on the manufacture and usage of selected sheet metal objects from helmets, a vessel, and two shields from the European Bronze Age and Early Iron Age, which date from the thirteenth to seventh centuries BC. Manufacturing traces on the surface, as well...
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Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2017. — 381 p. — (Oriental and European Archaeology, Vol. 6). — ISBN 978-3-7001-7741-8. This monograph provides for the first time a combined overview of all classes of metal body armour from the European Bronze Age in a holistic perspective, combining discussion of both traditional typo-chronologies and aspects of manufacture and use. The...
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Antiquity. — 2009. — No 83 — pp. 1052–1064. Are the imposing, decorated copper-alloy shields of Bronze Age Europe symbolic objects or functioning weapons? The author undertakes new analysis and experiments to conclude that whether bronze, leather or wood, all shields had a range of purpose in which the ceremonial and homicidal could rarely be completely isolated.
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In: Uckelmann M. & Mödlinger M. (eds.) Warfare in Bronze Age Europe: Manufacture and Use of Weaponry. — Oxford: Archaeopress, 2011. — pp. 67-84. The study of bronze weaponry is older than the field of archaeology and modern research has inherited both benefits and problems associated with this chronological breadth of research. Bronze weapons occur in relatively similar forms...
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Braunschweig: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich vieweg und sohn., 1900 — 239 S. Schon im Jahre 1885 habe ich gezeigt, dass man innerhalb des nordischen Bronzealters mehrere auf einander folgende Perioden unterscheiden kann. Dies Resultat wurde ermöglicht sowohl durch typologinche Untersuchungen der Alterthümer und ihrer Ornamente, als durch ein umfassendes Studium der Fundumstande...
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In: Collapse or Continuity? Environment and Development of Bronze Age Human Landscapes. Proceedings of the International Workshop “Socio-Environmental Dynamics over the Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II (14th –18th March 2011)” in Kiel. Volume 1 / edited by Jutta Kneisel, Wiebke Kirleis, Marta Dal Corso, Nicole Taylor and Verena Tiedtke. — Bonn: Verlag Dr. Rudolf...
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Baku: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, 2008. — 42 p. This Report describes the results of excavation of 18 kurgans at Soyugbulaq located at KP 432, of the BTC. The kurgans represent a burial site of the Leylatepe Eneolithic Culture. A series of six radiocarbon dates show the site relates to use in the first half of the fourth millennium. One of the burials is possibly the...
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International Conference (November 19-23, 2014, Georgia). Proceedings. — Tbilisi, 2014. — 306 pp. — ISBN 978-9941-0-7134-8. The main purpose of the international conference `Problems of Early Metal age Archaeology of Caucasus and Anatolia`, which was financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation, is discussing the issues of relations between the archaeological...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 38. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 692-705. This article studies the Bronze Age of northern Italy, including the southern slopes of the central-eastern Alps and the central-eastern plain of the Po valley. The first section identifies the relevant morphological features of the area, and then...
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Archaeopress Archaeology, 2019. — 520 p. Bronze ornaments of the Nordic Bronze Age (neck collars, belt plates, pins and tutuli) were elaborate objects that served as status symbols to communicate social hierarchy. The magnificent metalwork studied here dates from 1500-1100 BC. An interdisciplinary investigation of the artefacts was adopted to elucidate their manufacture and...
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Galway: Galway University Press, 1993. — 289 p. — ISBN 0-907775-46-2. This illustrated corpus of pottery from burial contexts in Bronze Age Ireland c. 2500-1500 BC was prepared by John Waddell with the assistance of Breandán Ó Ríordáin and the National Museum of Ireland. It includes a study on the manufacture, production and use of these ceramics by Alison Sheridan. Aspects of...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 24 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 433-449. This article takes a look at the mining of copper in Bronze Age Europe. It notes that the large number of copper mines which have been found in many parts of Europe signify that there was a widespread geological occurrence and surface exposure of copper deposits...
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Antiquity. — 2011. — No 85. — pp. 116-128. The authors examine the role of horses as expressed in assemblages from settlement sites and cemeteries between the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age in Kazakhstan. In this land, known for its rich association with horses, the skeletal evidence appears to indicate a fading of ritual interest. But that’s not the whole story, and once again...
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Journal of Archaeological Science. — 2012. — 39. — pp. 2424-2435. Current research themes relating to prehistoric Central Asian pastoralism are discussed, and the Neolithic to Bronze archaeological sequence in Kazakhstan is briefly outlined. The results of new faunal analyses of six later Bronze Age sites in Central and Northern Kazakhstan are presented. These studies are based...
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Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. — 2015. — 3. — pp. 216-236. This paper highlights a spatial interaction entropy maximization (SIEM) model to reproduce and understand past human settlement hierarchy in Central Anatolia (CA) and the Khabur Triangle (KT) during the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 2000-1600. BC). We propose applying SIEM to understand which sites and areas would...
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In book: Pare C. (ed.) Metals Make the World Go Round. — Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2000. — pp. 1-38. The term 'Bronze Age' has been in use since the birth of modem archaeology, and one would expect the concept to be well understood. Strangely, this is not the case, and there is no consensus on how to use the term. This is surely because the Three Age System is thought not to be a...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 29. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 508-527. This article explores the various techniques for measuring commodities that started during the Bronze Age. It shows that materials which cannot be properly ‘counted’ (e.g. power and liquids) were quantified by weighing or measuring volume. The...
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The Oxford Journal of Archaeology. — 1987. — Volume 6, No 1. — pp. 43-61. A technological advance in wheel construction, entailing spokes with thickened or strengthened ends, can be detected in Central Europe at the start of the Late Bronze Age. Spokes with thickened ends are seen in Central Europe on full-size wheels, wagon models and wheel depictions. It is argued that this...
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Acta Archeologica. — 1996. — Vol. 67. — pp. 99-120. The intention of this article is to provide a brief introduction to research on chronology in a large area, including Central Europe, central and northern Italy and the Balkan peninsula. The synthesis offered here only gives a broad outline of the most important results: whereas fine chronology is a valid aim for local...
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In: Eliten der Bronzezeit. Ergebnisse zweier Kolloquien in Mainz und Athen, Teil 2. (Monografien 43,2). — Mainz, 1999. — s. 421–514. This study of weights and weighing was sparked off by restoration arid analysis of finds from the grave with wheeled cauldron and »Riegsee« sword from Milavce, Bohemia, carried out by the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz. The Närodni...
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Mike Parker Pearson, Peter Marshall, Joshua Pollard, Colin Richards, Julian Thomas, and Kate Welham. — In book: The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age / Edited by Harry Fokkens and Anthony Harding. — Oxford, 2013. — p. 159-178. This article focuses on Stonehenge, the most famous stone circle in the world. It is located within one of the thickest concentrations of Neolithic...
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A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the division of the social sciences in candidacy for the degree of doctor of philosophy department of anthropology. — Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago, 2007. — 585 pp. This dissertation explores the role of metallurgy, metalworking, and the use of their products as a technical and value system in two complementary contexts....
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In: Popova L.M., Hartley C.W., Smith A.T. (Eds.) Social Orders and Social Landscapes. — Cambridge, 2007. — pp. 416–448. The Pontic Steppe is commonly conceived of as a world dominated by nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples, whose domestic architecture is poorly known. Only a few settlements from the Early Bronze Age have been excavated; the most famous of these are Michaylovka...
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Civilizações do Médio Oriente e Ásia Antiga. — Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2010. — 88 pp. One of the most successful Bronze Age technologies was the light war chariot. Its success meant an unprecedented spread throughout all of Asia. The subject of its origins is traditionally approached on regional basis. The present work seeks to address the issue...
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Trident Press, 2000. — 143 pp. — (In Depth Guides). — ISBN 1-900724-31-6. Tell Abraq, in the United Arab Emirates, has focussed new light on the early civilization of Magan - a pivotal centre of international trade over 4000 years ago. Professor Dan Potts, director of this archaeological study, carries the reader on a fascinating journey of discovery, sharing in the excitement...
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Hiperboreea Journal. — 2015. — Vol. 2, No. 2 — pp. 5-51. The beginning of the Early Bronze Age brought significant changes in the Carpathian-Danube Area, including new burial customs, a different economy and innovative technologies, most of them with eastern steppe origins. Thus, burial barrows appeared in the landscape raised over rectangular grave-pits, sometimes with wood or...
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Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2011. — 208 pp. — ISBN 978-1-84217-450-0. It can be argued that elements of European heritage can be identified not only as a national strategy of the present but also as a process in prehistory - the cultural and political transformations of the third millennium BC in European prehistory sparking off this process. These transformations initiated the...
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In: Holt Emily (ed.) Water and Power in Past Societies. — State University of New York Press, 2018. — p. 177-197. Along the western Norwegian coast, in the northwestern region of the Nordic Late Neolithic and Bronze Age (2350–500 BCE) there is cultural homogeneity but variable expressions of political hierarchy. Although new ideological institutions, technology (e.g., metallurgy...
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Head of Zeus, 2016. — 208 p. A concise, beautifully illustrated account of the history and archaeology of an iconic feature of the English landscape, from one of Britain’s most distinguished archaeologists. Perched on the chalk uplands of Salisbury Plain, the megaliths of Stonehenge offer one of the most recognizable outlines of any ancient structure. Its purpose – place of...
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Warsaw: National Centre for Culture, 2009. — 553 pp. — ISBN 978-83-926238-5-4. The work of Marcin S. Przybyła is an interesting study of contacts between the lands of Poland and the cultural regions of the Transcarpathians during the period referred to in the title. Based on findings from 177 Polish archeological sites, the author provides convincing evidence for the thesis...
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In: Dzięgielewski K., Przybyła M.S., Gawlik A. (eds). Migration in Bronze and Early Iron Age Europe (Prace Archeologiczne No. 63 Studies). — Kraków, 2010. — pp. 87-104. Spreading of the specific types of pottery was relatively often interpreted as a result of mass migrations in the tradition of Central European archaeology. Presented paper contains deliberations concerning the...
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Article // Civilization Researches # 9. UNESCO Chair in Intercultural Dialogue. Tbilisi University Press, 2012. - 105-106 pp. The presented article is devoted to a special comparative study of similar tendencies existing in the artistic crafts of the famous Trialeti Culture of the developed, II phase of the Middle Bronze Age.
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Antiquity. — 1994. — Vol. 68, Issue 259. — p. 355-372. The agricultural cultures of Bactria and Margiana during the Bronze Age maintained complex ties with the steppe cultures to the north and to the east. The most difficult problem to be resolved is the chronological relationship and the nature of the cultural interaction that characterized these distinctive cultural traditions....
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Research Quarterly. — Winter, 2015. — Volume 33, Number 2 — pp. 37-95. The early societies of central China in the Yellow and Wei River valleys, concentrating on cereal crops, were surrounded to the north and north-west by very different groups of people, who herded animals. In the paper, following Tong Enzheng, this border area is named the arc. The cultures of peoples in the...
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Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University. Institute of Eastern Studies. Institute of Prehistory, 2011. — 325 p. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies: vol. 16). The study resulted in a detailed description and analysis of key aspects of usage of flint articles in burial rites of the Northern Pontic population in the Early and Middle Bronze Age. The issue raised in this study has been addressed in a...
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Translated by Inna Pidluska. — Poznań: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2011. — 328 pp. — (Baltic-Pontic Studies, vol. 16). — ISBN 83-86094-16-8. The present study sums up the innovative research of Sergiey M. Razumov dealing with the question of funerary applications of flint artefacts documented in Pontic communities of the forest steppe and steppe tied to the prologue of...
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Praha: Academia, 1972. — 88 s. — (Studie Archeologického ústavu ČSAV v Brně; ročník. 1/1972, svazek 5). Autor předkládá soupis moravských bronzových nožů ze sklonku střední doby bronzové, mladší a pozdní doby bronzové a z přechodu k vlastní době halštatské. Shromážděné nálezy typologicky rozděluje do jedenácti rámcových skupin,datuje je a posléze stanoví původ uvedených typů,...
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Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. — 2015. — Volume 81 — pp. 239-264. Based on recent evidence from both archaeological and natural sciences, in this paper we would like to sketch a historical geography of Europe and the Mediterranean around the year 1600 BC and then discuss the changes observed during the 16th century BC in relation to a possible correspondence with the...
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Article // Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. — 2009. — № 16 — Pp. 162-183. Stelae (also known variously as statue-stelae and statue-menhirs) are a pan-European phenomenon in fourth and third millennia B.C. Europe and are clearly associated with the social transformations characterizing Europe in this period. While the varying traditions of stelae, from the Ukraine to...
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Archaeological Review from Cambridge. — 2008. — № 23 (2) — pp. 27-45. This paper seeks to re-assess the role of migration in the earliest transmission of copper objects and metal production practices in Western Europe, defined as Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Holland, Britain and Ireland, during the fourth and third millennia BC
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 2 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp. 17-46. This article examines the chronology of Western Europe during the Bronze Age. It determines that this chronology is still a work in progress, and is based on information which can be gathered from distinguishing distinct material or architectural phases from...
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In: Levine L.D., Young T.C., Jr. (eds). Mountains and Lowlands: Essays in the Archaeology of Greater Mesopotamia. — Malibu, 1977. — pp. 234–249. The long stratigraphic sequence for Iranian Azerbaijan which has resulted from the excavations of the Hasanlu project provides a foundation for evaluating evidence from contiguous geographical areas, particularly Soviet Transcaucasia,...
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A Master thesis in Archaeology. — University of Bergen, 2011. — 110 p. The hypothesis for this thesis is that the numerous cairns that were surveyed in the hinterland of Palmyra in 2009 can be connected to a pastoral nomadic population on the Syrian Steppe in the Early Bronze Age (EBA). This hypothesis is based on the large numbers of cairns and the fact that there are few signs...
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Göteborg Universitet, 2007. — 293 pp. — (Gotarc Series B, Humanistiska fakulteten vid Göteborgs universitet; No 47). — ISBN 978-91-85245-33-X. The ceramic material commonly referred to as northern European Late Bronze Age house urns is the main focus of this study. House urns are a distinctive and numerically limited class of funerary vessels characterised by evident...
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Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984. — 564 pp., 24 pls., 155 figs., 4 tables, 19 maps, (in 3 parts). — (BAR International Series 214). — ISBN 0-86054-277-7. "This study was originally submitted as a doctoral thesis at the University of Melbourne in 1983. It is an attempt to fill the need for a survey of the Early Bronze Age in Trans-Caucasus, eastern Turkey and western Iran,...
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In: Tekin, O., Sayar, M. and Konyar, E. (eds.), Essays in Honour of M. Taner Tarhan. — Istanbul: Ege Yayınları, 2013. — pp. 277–298. "In the history of technology, the invention of the wheel stands as an innovation of singular importance to human societies. As the pivotal part of wagons and carts, it revolutionised transport and contact, enabling communities to move heavier loads...
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Ancient Civilizations. — 2002. — Vol. 8, No. 1-2 — p. 69-106. Surface surveys of protohistorical sites in South and Central Asia, since the early ‘70ies, have provided a great amount of archaeological information on ancient technology and early urban craft organisation. The purpose of this paper is to present the first results of an archaeometallurgical study carried out on a...
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Paléorient. — 2009. — Vol. 35.1 — p. 47-67. On the surface of the site of Ilgynly-depe (southern Turkmenistan) we identified a cluster of artefacts indicating the local performance of multiple metallurgical activities. About 100 objects were mapped and collected. The finds were studied in detail by the means of basic analytical techniques. The surface record can be ascribed to...
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Leipzig: Commissions-verlag von Glesecke&Devrient, 1869. — 213 p. Als ich im Jahre 1832 zu Kalkhorst, einem Dorfe in. Mecklenburg-Schwerin, im Alter von zehn Jahren, meinem Vater als Weihnachtsgabe einen in schlechtem Latein geschriebenen Aufsatz über die Hauptbegebenheiten des trojanischen Krieges und die Abenteuer des Odysseus und Agamemnon überreichte, ahnte ich nicht, dass...
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New York: Scribner, Armstrong & Co, 1878. — 489 p. It has been with much reluctance that, at the persevering request of Dr. Schliemann, I have undertaken to write a Preface to his Mycenean volume. I have managed perhaps, though with long intermissions of the pleasant labour, to maintain a tolerable acquaintance with the text of Homer; and the due establishment of the points of...
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Dissertation presented for the degree of philosophiae doctor (PhD) at the Department of Archaeology, History, Cultural Studies, and Religion. — University of Bergen, 2014. — 468 pp. The PhD dissertation “Mobile pastoralist groups and the Palmyrene in the late Early to Middle Bronze Age (c. 2400-1700 BCE): An archaeological synthesis based on a multidisciplinary approach focusing...
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Buridava. — 2015. — XII/1. — p. 186-234. There are analyzed the mace-heads made of stone and discovered in the sites belonging to the Bronze Age cultures of Southern Romania (Glina, Tei, Verbicioara, Gârla Mare, Coslogeni, Radovanu). Besides their tipology (by shape), dimensions (diameter, height, shape and diameter of the hafting hole), the raw materials that they were made of...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 35. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 632-652. This article focuses on the Bronze Age in Peninsular Italy, starting with the climate and geographical features of the area during the period. It discusses in detail the various stages of the Italian Bronze Age (Early, Middle, Late, and Final), and...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 36. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 653-667. This article discusses the Bronze Age in Sicily, which was once total autonomous from mainland Italy and a concentration of foreign contacts. It first observes that during the earliest stage of the Bronze Age, a system of coastal trade which extended...
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N. Shishlina, E. Kaverzneva, R. Fernandes, V. Sevastyanov, N. Roslyakova, D. Gimranov, O. Kuznetsova. — Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. — 2016. — 10. — p. 74–81. A multidisciplinary research project was undertaken to investigate the subsistence strategies adopted by populations living in the vicinity of Lake Shagara in the forest zone of Eastern Europe during the...
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In: Bergerbrant S., Sabatini S.S. (Eds.) Counterpoint: Essays in Archaeology and Heritage Studies in Honour of Professor Kristian Kristiansen (BAR International Series 2508). — Archaeopress, 2013. — p. 53-60. Interpretation of the data which is currently available for the populations of the Steppe and the adjacent North Caucasus areas during the Bronze Age has enabled the analysis...
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Radiocarbon. — 2014. — Vol 56, Nr 2. — Pp. 767–778. Human and animal bone collagen from different Steppe Bronze Age cultures, including the Yamnaya, East Manych Catacomb, and Lola cultures, show large variations in δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. More positive values of δ 13 C and δ 15 N are caused by change in diet and/or a more arid climate. Human bones show reservoir effects caused...
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Radiocarbon. — 2012. — Vol. 54. № 3-4. — p. 749-760. Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen from several steppe Bronze Age cultures (i.e. Early Catacomb, East and West Manych Catacomb, and Lola cultures) shows large variations in δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. In general, we observed that the older the sample, the lower the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. We hypothesize that more positive...
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Radiocarbon. — 2009. — Vol.51, № 2. — P. 481-499. Combined analysis of paleoenvironment, 13 C, 15 N, and 14 C in bone, including paired dating of human bone and terrestrial materials (herbivore bone, wood, charcoal, and textile) has been performed on many samples excavated from Russian kurgan graves. The data can be used for dietary reconstruction, and reservoir corrections for 14...
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Les cultures du Caucase (VIe-IIIe millenaries avant notre ere). Leurs relations avec le Proche-Orient / Sous la direction de Bertille Lyonnet. — CNRS Editions, 2007. — p. 269-283. Globular and tube faience beads are very common items in Bronze Age jewellery. Through several kinds of studies, like typologies, identification of the material they are made from, as well as...
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Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015. — 242 pp. — (The Rostovtzeff Lectures). — ISBN 978-0-691-16323-9. The Political Machine investigates the essential role that material culture plays in the practices and maintenance of political sovereignty. Through an archaeological exploration of the Bronze Age Caucasus, Adam Smith demonstrates that beyond assemblies of...
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INSTAP Academic Press, 2017. — 368 p. This volume is the final publication of the results of excavation of six Mycenaean chamber tombs in the Late Bronze Age cemetery of Ayia Sotira within the Nemea Valley of the Argolid region of Greece.The work presented includes artifactual and ecofactual remains such as pottery, jewelry, figurines, metal objects, human skeletons, and botanical...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 26. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 469-491. The Bronze Age can be characterised by an unprecedented increase in craft activity. One of these was the production of bone, ceramics, and textiles, three contrasting materials that became widespread in this period. This article discusses the...
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In book: The Oxford Handbook of European Bronze Age, Chapter: 19 — Oxford University Press, 2013. — pp.340–361. Cultivated plants have long been considered as the main foundation of human nutrition. This article assesses the regional dominance and basic importance of several crops in Bronze Age Europe. The discussion is limited to rough regional classifications of the Early,...
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Routledge, 2003. — 263 p. Progressive demystification is one way I might characterize my thirty years of archaeological inquiry into the culture of ancient Egypt. Dorothy found that the great and powerful Wizard of Oz, with all his mystery, sound and fury, was really the little man behind the curtain. Similarly the mystery and magic of ancient Egypt, the mighty monuments built...
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American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003. — 600 p. The excavations at Sotira Kaminoudhia in southern Cyprus revealed the remains of tombs and an Early Bronze Age settlement. This is the first Early Bronze Age settlement to be excavated in Cyprus, an era previously known only from mortuary deposits. This volume provides a final report on the excavations and includes specialist...
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Antiquity. — 2011. — No 85. — pp. 819-838. A massive Late Bronze Age fortified settlement in Central Europe has been the subject of a new and exemplary investigation by excavation and site survey. This prehistoric enclosure, nearly 6km across, had a complex development, dense occupation and signs of destruction by fire. It can hardly be other than a capital city playing a role...
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Monza, Italy: Polimetrica, 2011. — 427 pp. — (Praehistorica Mediterranea 3). — ISBN 978-88-7699-223-0. The Bronze Age of the Maltese archipelago has long been overlooked by archaeologists whose attention has mostly been focused on the Late Neolithic temples. This book attempts to understand the islands' Bronze Age society in the course of the second millennium BC by exploring...
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Dates of Exhibition:15 July -3 August, 1982 Site of Exhibition: Isetan Museum or Art. — Nippon Television Network Cultural Society, 1982. — 131 p. This year marks the tenth anniversary or the commencement of excavation of the ancient burial ground at Varna on the shores of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. Haiica by archaeologists as the world s oldest eoiden civilization, the sudden...
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V.A. Trifonov, N.I. Shishlina, E. Yu. Lebedeva, J. van der Plicht, S.A. Rishko. — Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. — 2017. — 12. — p. 288–294. This paper provides new radiocarbon dates for preserved remains of broomcorn millet discovered in Bronze Age occupation layers at the Guamsky Grot rock shelter in the northwestern Caucasus. The millet grains directly date between...
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Radiocarbon. — 2014. — Vol 56, Nr 2 — p. 743–752. The dolmen known as Shepsi was accidentally discovered on the Black Sea coast (Tuapse region, Russia). Radiocarbon dates show that the classic trapezoidal construction of the Caucasian dolmens with a port-hole appeared in the region as early as 3250 BC. The distinctive structural characteristic for dolmens of that time was a floor...
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In book: Fokkens H., Harding A. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The European Bronze Age. Chapter 22. — Oxford, 2013. — pp. 398-413. This article examines land transport and transport connections (roads and paths) in the Bronze Age. It shows that the spoked wheel was one of the most relevant innovations during this period, since it caused a considerable reduction in weight. The...
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In: M. Uckelmann, M. Mödlinger (eds). Bronze Age Warfare: Manufacture and Use of Weaponry / British Archaeological Reports International Series 2255. — Archaeopress, 2011. — pp. 187-199. With the end of the Middle Bronze Age and the beginning of the Late Bronze Age shields made of a single piece of bronze sheet come into use. All over Europe about 86 of these metal shields are...
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In: Essays on Ancient Anatolian and Syrian studies in the 2nd and Ist millennium B. C. / ed. by Prince Takahito Mikasa. — Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1991. — pp. 16-43. The nature of ancient texts often allows us to find what we want to prove. According to Forrer the Hittite texts had to reflect the splendid world of the Greek heroic age, füll of tough heroes, "sackers of cities",...
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Doctoral Thesis. — Leiden University, 2012. — 428 pp. This study wants to help Central Italy claim its place in Bronze Age studies and make a crossover between landscape and network approaches in archaeology. It starts from a methodological consideration of archaeological synthesis in Bronze Age studies. Approaching landscapes as networks of places, this study advocates a...
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Amsterdam University Press, 2002. — 441 pp. — (Amsterdam Archaeological Studies, Book 8). — ISBN 90-5356-482-9. Pottery made in the aegean during the Late Bronze Age has been found widely distributed in many parts of the Mediterranean. At some four hundred sites outside Greece, Mycenaean dinner and storage vessels, as well as some figurines have been discovered. As such, this...
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In book: 1600 – Cultural change in the shadow of the Thera-Eruption? 4th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany. October 14–16, 2011 in Halle (Saale). — Halle (Saale), 2013. — pp. 267-282. After the end of the local Early Bronze Age, central-eastern northern Italy saw the rapid expansion, steep growth and sudden fall of the so-called Terramara settlement model, and the...
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Sidestone Press, 2013. — 272 p. — ISBN 978-90-8890-209-3. The present work is the result of the First International Chariot Conference, jointly organised by the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo (NVIC) and the American University in Cairo (AUC) (30 November to 2 December 2012). The intention of the conference was to make a broad assessment of the current state of knowledge...
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Vogt В., Sedov A. The Sabir Culture and Coastal Yemen During the Second Millennium BC — the Present State of Discussion // PSAS. Vol. 28. 1998. P. 261-270. В статье рассмотрена раннегородская культура бронзового века прибрежных районов Йемена.
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Galway University Press, Officina typographica, 1990. — 166 p. — ISBN 0-907775-36-5. Preface. The Funerary Record. Gazetteer of Burial Sites.
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Springer, 2003. — XVI, 449 p. — 158 illus., 3 illus. in color. — (Natural Science in Archaeology). — ISBN 978-3-642-07832-3. When reconstructing the past, the archaeologist needs to take into account all kinds of relevant information. Where no written sources are available, the natural sciences play an indispensable role. Troia is a remarkable site in this respect. The present...
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Anthropol Anz. — 2013. — 70 (3). — pp. 289-307. The cemetery of Neckarsulm in southwestern Germany was discovered in 2001 and contained the inhumation graves of 50 individuals in 32 graves. The cemetery was in use for about 50 years during the Late Bronze Age (Urnfield culture, Hallstatt A1 period). The individuals who could confidently be identified were almost exclusively adult...
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Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2011. — 17 pp. — (Sino-Platonic Papers, 213). "There are several crucial issues that affect the early development of bronze metallurgy in Eastern Eurasia (the eastern part of the Eurasian continent, namely East Asia, Eastern Central Asia, Southern Siberia, and Southeast Asia), and I will discuss them in this essay."
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PLoS ONE. — 2014. — Volume 9, Issue 9. — 9 pp. Over 60 recent analyses of animal bones, plant remains, and building timbers from Assiros in northern Greece form an unique series from the 14th to the 10th century BC. With the exception of Thera, the number of 14 C determinations from other Late Bronze Age sites in Greece has been small and their contribution to chronologies...
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Brill, 2003. — 254 p. This volume examines the earliest production and exchange of copper and its alloys in the Persian Gulf, a major metal supply route for the Bronze Age societies of Western Asia. Weeks addresses the geological and technological background to copper production in southeastern Arabia and contextualizes evidence for major fluctuations in prehistoric copper...
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In book: H. Meller, H.W. Arz, R. Jung, and R. Risch (eds.) 2200 BC - A climatic breakdown as a cause for the collapse of the Old World? — Halle: Landesmuseum fur Vorgeschichte, 2015. — pp. 35-52. The 2200–1900 BC (4.2–3.9 ka BP) deflection or weakening of the Mediterranean westerlies and the Indian monsoon generated synchronous megadrought across the Mediterranean, West Asia,...
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American Journal of Archaeology. — 1974. — Vol. 78, No. 4. — p. 415-425. The closest known relative of western Anatolian pithos cemeteries is the prehistoric necropolis at Byblos. These two areas may represent distant geographical examples of a series of similar pithos cemeteries along the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia and the Levant, but there are not enough excavated sites in...
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Papers from a conference in Sheffield in 2008 in memory of Professor Andrew Sherratt. — Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books, 2011. — 308 pp. — ISBN 978-1-84217-998-7. How do we understand the systemic interactions that took place in and between different regions of prehistoric Eurasia and their consequences for individuals, groups and regions on both a theoretical and empirical basis? Such...
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Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 2001. — 703 pp. — (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 59; ASOR Books, No. 5). — ISBN 1-885923-15-5. Joint Publication of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (SAOC 59) and the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR Books, No. 5). The studies in this impressive volume of over 700 pages are presented in memory of...
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Doctoral Thesis. — Leiden: Sidestone Press, 2009. — 183 pp. — ISBN 978-90-8890-031-0. Throughout history, climate change has been an important driving force behind human behaviour. This archaeological study seeks to understand the complex interrelations between that behaviour and climatic fluctuations, focussing on how climate affected the social relations between neighbouring...
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Tel Aviv (Journal of the Tel Aviv University Institute of Archaeology). — 1975. — Vol. 2, No 4. — p. 133–145. The mountainous territory of northern Anatolia which extends from the eastern side of the Bosphorus to the Russian border has long been regarded as terra incognita by archaeologists. Although scores of prehistoric settlements were discovered during various surveys in the...
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Anatolian Studies. — 1979. — Vol. 29. — p. 51-67. J. Mellaart has recently proposed a uniform time scale for Egypt, Near and Middle East by combining a high historical chronology with dendrochronology-corrected radiocarbon dating (1979). His choice and application of Anatolian C-14 dates in adjusting the Mesopotamian sequence into a high chronological framework calls for some...
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In: Mei J. and Rehren Th. (Eds.) Metallurgy and Civilisation: Eurasia and Beyond Archetype. — London, 2009. — pp. 17-25. The Seĭma-Turbino Phenomenon is an important conceptual breakthrough in understanding the 442 metal artefacts discovered in an extraordinarily vast territory in Eurasia. Much of the phenomenon, however, has not been well understood. The locations where the...
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Anatolian Studies. — 2007. — No 57 — pp. 65−75. This paper aims to reappraise and evaluate central Anatolian connections with the Black Sea region and the Caucasus focusing mainly on the third millennium BC. In its first part, a ceremonial item, the knobbed or ‘mushroom’ macehead, in its various appearances, is discussed in order to reconstruct a possible pattern of circulation...
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In: Anatolia Supplement, series no. 2. — Ankara, 2008. — pp. 341-353. Metal items of less practical but more symbolic or cultic function count amongst the most characteristic items of the late Early Bronze Age in Anatolia. The famous zoomorphic or abstract standards from the Alaca Höyük and Horoztepe necropoleis are one striking example. Since these objects are still an...
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Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени к.и.н. по специальности – 07.00.06 – "Археология" - М., 1990 г. - 20 с. В работе систематизирован металлический инвентарь степных культур конца позднего бронзового века Евразии. Создана единая для всей провинции типология орудий, оружия, посуды, украшений. Впервые обработаны результаты спектрального анализа металла Азиатской...
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Наш край (Куйбышев). — 1975. — Вып. 2. — С. 3-12. Эпоха ранней бронзы в Куйбышевской области до последнего времени была представлена лишь единичными погребениями у сел Березняки, Аверьянка, Микулино, Колтубанка, Светлое Озеро. В связи с этим вполне естественным было предположение о проникновении на эту территорию немногочисленных групп ямного населения и массовом заселении ее...
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Статья // Музейний вісник (Запоріжжя). — 2008. — № 8 — С. 34-41. В статье описана антропоморфная стела из села Лучинского (Роздельнянского р-на Одесской обл. Украині). Она представляет 4 тип скульптурного изображения по классификации Е.Ю. Новицкого и относится к XIX – XVII вв. до н. э. Стела из Лучинского подобна скульптурам из Новоселовки, Балцаты, Александровки и Крестовой...
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Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени к.и.н. - Ленинград, 1953 г. - 19 с. В настоящей работе представлены сведения о материальной культуре Центрального Казахстана в эпоху бронзы. Дается обобщение результатов исследования производимых исследователями в указанном регионе. Рекомендуется археологам, историкам, краеведам, а также всем, интересующимся древней историей...
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Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата исторических наук по специальности 07.00.06 – археология. — М.: Институт археологии РАН, 2015. — 539 с. Научный руководитель: к.и.н. Т.М. Потемкина. Целью данной работы является характеристика культурной специфики памятников позднего бронзового века степной части Южного Зауралья. Научная новизна работы заключается в том,...
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СПб.: ЭлекСис, 2014. — 154 с. Монография посвящена характеристике археологических памятников долины Черного Июса на севере Республики Хакасия, исследованных в результате охранных работ при строительстве автодороги. Авторами приведено описание памятников, методика исследования и характеристика сопроводительного инвентаря. Также проведены междисциплинарные исследования...
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Статья. // Археологические исследования в Узбекистане. 2004–2005 годы. – Ташкент: Фан, 2005. – Вып. 5. – С. 256-265. Предварительная публикация материалов могильника, полученных в результате аварийных работ в 2005 г.
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Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора исторических наук. Исторические науки: 07.00.06 - археология. — М.: Институт археологии РАН, 2006. — 42 с. Предлагаемое исследование преследует две основные цели . С одной стороны, определить место Телль Хазны I в системе синхронных памятников Северной Месопотамии, с другой - через наблюдения, сделанные в ходе многолетних...
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СРС на тему "Андроновтар. Беғазы – Дәндібай мәдениеті. на казахском языке КГМУ, Караганда 2013, стр 48 Содержание: Кіріспе. Алғашқы дүние терең Отан тарихының бесігі. Негізгі бөлім. Андроновтар мәдениеті Андроновшылар шаруашылығы Беғазы – Дәндібай мәдениеті Қорытынды Пайдаланылған әдебиеттер
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Проблемы археологии Поднепровья III—I тыс. до н. э. — Днепропетровск, 1984. — С. 97-105. (фото страниц) В последние годы пристальное внимание археологов привлекает технология древних производств и связанные с этим всесторонние исследования орудий труда. Предметом данной статьи являются орудия и технологические приемы, применяемые при рытье могил в бронзовом веке на территории...
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М.: Наука, 1984. - 262 с. В книге на основе изучения археологических памятников и письменных источников с привлечением данных этнографии анализируются представления древних земледельцев Передней и Средней Азии (VII-II тыс. до н.э.) о пространстве, времени, людях, животных, растениях и предпринимается попытка реконструкции их мировосприятия.
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Историко-филологический журнал (Ереван). — 1990. — № 1 — с. 53-74. Среди памятников и культурных групп среднего бронзового века только комплексы кармирбердской культуры типологией артефактов проявляют устойчивую взаимовстречаемость с комплексами позднего бронзового века и переходного периода от средней к поздней бронзе. Соответственно этому, верхняя хронологическая граница...
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Проблемы археологии и этнографии. Вып. I. — Л.: ЛГУ, 1977. — с. 4-13. "В начале тридцатых годов в старом ГАИМК существовала небольшая исследовательская группа, называвшаяся ИКС (х) по первым буквам слов, означающих её проблему — История кочевого скотоводства. В группу входили В.В. Гольмстен, М.П. Грязнов, Г.П. Сосновский и автор этих строк. Важнейшим результатом нашей...
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Киев: «Наукова думка», 1987. - 147 с. В сборнике исследуются связи и контакты племен, обитавших на территории Украины в бронзовом веке, с соседними и более отдаленными племенами. Фиксируются миграции и рассматривается их роль в сложении и развитии отдельных археологических культур. В научный оборот вводится значительное количество новых памятников, в которых находят отражение...
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Коллективная монография. - Ташкент, "ФАН", 1983 г. - 122 с. Монография посвящена уникальному памятнику эпохи поздней бронзы на Юге Узбекистана. На основе изучения большого археологического материала погребальных комплексов авторы пытаются проследить основные этапы развития протогородской цивилизации на Юге Узбекистана, выявить культурные связи автохтонного населения с племенами...
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М.: Наука, 1970. — 176 с. В книге впервые полностью публикуются богатейшие бронзовые изделия и другие материалы, найденные в 1912 - 1929 гг. у станции Сейма, в низовьях Оки, а также отдельные находки с территории Поволжья. Автор рассматривает историю первобытных племен Окского Поволжья во II тысячелетии до н.э. и отмечает большое значение окских археологических памятников для...
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Львів: Логос, 2012. — 283 с. — ISBN 966-7379-56-6. У монографії вперше повністю публікуються матеріали досліджень 148 поховань висоцької культури (кін. ХІІ-VІІІ ст. до н. е.), які були розкопані автором під Тернополем впродовж трьох польових сезонів. На підставі глибокого аналізу поховального обряду Петриківського та інших могильників (Висоцьке, Чехи-Лугове, Гончарівка, Золочів)...
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Матеріали і дослідження з археології Прикарпаття і Волині. — 2005. — Вип. 9. — С. 135-173. В останній час чим раз більшає праць, які присвячені різним аспектам індоєвропеїзації Європи. Нові археологічні матеріали свідчать про досить раннє проникнення носіїв традицій південноукраїнських степових культур у Центральну і Південно-Східну Європу та їх активну участь у формуванні і...
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Львів: Логос, 1994. — 163 с.: іл. — ISBN 5-7707-6040-0. В монографії подано результати досліджень пам’яток висоцької культури Західного Поділля. Розглядаються проблеми генезису висоцьких племен, їх зв’язки з носіями сусідніх культур – чорноліської, лужицької і голіградської групи фракійського гальштату. Виділено групу скриньrових поховань VIII – початку VI ст. до н. е.,...
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Статья // Вестник Томского государственного университета. — 2014. — № 380 — С. 67–79. Описываются исследования контактов Китая с народами Центральной Азии в древности. Бронзовый и начало железного века Китая, охватывающие эпохи Шан-Инь и Чжоу, представляют особый интерес для исследования контактов Китая с соседними народами, поскольку именно для этого периода можно наиболее...
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Коллективная монография. — Алматы: Институт археологии им. А.Х. Маргулана, 2017. — 176 с. — ISBN 978-601-7312-74-9. В коллективной монографии даны материалы по исследованию памятников особого, малоизученного региона Казахстана — Северной Бетпакдалы, памятники которой известны по ранним работам Центрально-Казахстанской археологической экспедиции. Впервые памятники этого региона...
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Монография. — Киев: Наукова думка, 1982. — 210 с. В работе использованы данные археологических исследований произведенных в результате более чем 20-летних изысканий автора, послужившие фундаментом исследования. На основе систематизации археологических данных по Северной Украине делаются выводы по сложению и функционированию 9 археологических культур, обосновывается разделение...
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Год: 1986. Автор: Березанская С.С. Отрощенко В.В. Чередниченко Н.Н. Шарафутдинова И.Н. Жанр: Монография. Издательство: Наукова думка. Язык: Русский. Формат: DjVu. Качество: Распознанный текст с ошибками (OCR). Интерактивное оглавление: Да. Количество страниц: 164. Описание: Монография посвящена характеристике четырех археологических культур: многоваликовой керамики,...
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ПФ Амет, Харьков, 2001. — 264 с. ISBN: 966-02-1888-5 В монографии рассматриваются памятники эпохи средней-поздней бронзы (II тыс. до н. э. ) на территории лесостепи Восточной Украины, большая часть которых была исследована автором на протяжении более чем 20 лет полевых археологических работ. Характеризуются поселения, могильники, культовые места. Значительное внимание уделяется...
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Харьков: ПФ Амет, 2001. — 264 с. — ISBN: 966-02-1888-5. В монографии рассматриваются памятники эпохи средней-поздней бронзы (II тыс. до н. э. ) на территории лесостепи Восточной Украины, большая часть которых была исследована автором на протяжении более чем 20 лет полевых археологических работ. Характеризуются поселения, могильники, культовые места. Значительное внимание...
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Тезисы докладов Башкапсарского полевого археологического семинара (Сухуми – Башкапсара, 1988 г.). — Сухуми, 1988. — 74 с. Бжания В.В. (Москва). Организация Башкапсарского семинара. Черных Е.Н. (Москва). Кавказ в системе металлургических провинций бронзового века. Бжания В.В. (Москва). Древние рудники у перевала Аденгь. Хомерики Г.С., Жордания Б.В. (Сухуми)....
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К.: Наукова думка, 1977. — 160 с. Ред. - Ващенко Л.Л. Худ.ред. - Савицкая И.П. Тех.ред. -Зубрицкая Т.М. Илл. - Пугацкий Э.Г. Сборник содержит публикации материалов исследований двух курганных могильников. Первый из них относится к срубной культуре бронзового века, а второй - содержит курганы бронзового и скифского времени IV в. до н.э. Приведено около 70-ти рисунков:...
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Бобров В.В. Кузнецко-Салаирская горная область в эпоху бронзы. Автореф. докт. ист. наук. - Новосибирск, 1992. - 45 с.
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Вестник Чувашского университета. — 2010. — № 4 — С. 7-11. Проанализирована керамика с геометрическим орнаментом и солярной символикой абашевской, атликасинской и балановской культур. На основе этого анализа автором развивается гипотеза об определенной синхронности абашевской, атликасинской и балановской культур.
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Статья // Известия Самарского Научного Центра РАН. — 2008. — Том 10, № 1 — С. 237-243. В статье рассматриваются культурные связи Средневолжского, Верхневолжского и Волго-Окского регионов. В эпоху раннего металла (средняя бронза по хронологии лесостепи) эти связи фиксируются для волосовской, абашевской, балановской и атликасинской культур. Сейминско-турбинские памятники также...
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Научные проблемы гуманитарных исследований (Пятигорск). — 2010. — Выпуск 5 — С. 5–11. В статье рассматриваются взаимоотношения племен с различным хозяйственно-культурным типом (ХКТ). По мнению автора, на севере Среднего Поволжья контакты степных племен с производящим ХКТ и лесных с присваивающим хозяйством прослеживаются с неолита, но наиболее интенсивно они шли в эпоху бронзы,...
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Статья // «Научный Татарстан», 2/2009, Казань. - с. 21-26. В статье рассматривается проблема хронологического соотношения абашевской, атликасинской и балановской культур. Приводится ряд свидетельств в пользу определенной синхронности вышеназванных культур. Эти свидетельства касаются погребеального обряда, орнаментации керамики и других артефактов. Определенные контакты...
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Диссертация на соискание учёной степени кандидата исторических наук по специальности 07.00.06 - археология. — М.: ИА РАН, 2016. — 508 с. Научный руководитель — к.и.н. Т.М. Потёмкина. Основной целью диссертации является формирование целостного представления о погребениях со следами древнего постингумационного проникновения на основе их комплексного анализа в контексте...
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Вестник НГУ. Серия: История, филология. — 2013. — Том 12, выпуск 5: Археология и этнография. — С. 182-190. Чашечные камни известны в Евразии, Африке, Северной Америке. На Горном Алтае они сосредоточены, главным образом, в Онгудайском р-не Республики Алтай в окрестностях с. Озерное, в долине р. Урсул и в устье р. Чуя. Чашечные камни обычно относят исключительно к ритуальным...
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CПб.: Инфо Ол, 2010. — 231 с. — ISBN 978-5-904538-07-1. Сборник статей В. С. Бочкарева издан к 70-летию автора и включает 33 работы разных лет, часть из которых ныне труднодоступна. Большинство этих работ посвящено исследованию древнего маталлопроизводства Восточной Европы, на материалах которого рассмотрены различные аспекты проблемы культурогенеза, его значение в...
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Проблемы периодизации и хронологии в археологии эпохи раннего металла Восточной Европы: Материалы тематической научной конференции. — СПб., 2013. — с. 61-79. "В настоящей работе мы представляем первые итоги общей классификации древнейших псалиев, имеющих дисковидную форму щитка. Нами учтено 224 экземпляра, происходящих с огромной территории Северной Евразии: от Центральной Азии на...
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Матерiали та дослiдження з археологiï Схiдноï Украïни: Збiрник наукових праць (за ред. С.М. Санжарова). — Випуск 6 — Луганськ: Вид-во СНУ iм. В. Даля, 2006. — 312 с. Сборник посвящен 70-летнему юбилею известного украинского археолога С.Н. Братченко и содержит мемуары его коллег, учеников, а так же монографичное исследование юбиляра по итогам изучения Левенцовской крепости эпохи...
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Киев.: Издательство "Наукова думка". 1976 – 252 с. Обзор катакомбных памятников. Классификация погребальных сооружений и керамики. Памятники донецкого типа на Нижнем Дону. Группа позднекатакомбных смешанных памятников бахмутского типа. Памятники манычского типа на Нижнем Дону. Памятники многоваликовой керамики. Поздние Северокавказские памятники - ливенцовская и каратаевская...
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Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени кандидата исторических наук по специальности Исторические науки: 07.00.06 - археология. — М.: Институт археологии РАН, 2008. — 22 с. Научный руководитель: доктор исторических наук В.И. Марковин. Целью диссертационной работы является всесторонний анализ древней бронзовой антропоморфной пластики Кавказа, выявление некоторых...
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М.: ТАУС, 2012. — 461 с. — ISBN 978-5-903011-93-3. Монография является результатом всестороннего исследования бронзовой антропоморфной пластики Кавказа. Проведена работа по систематизации, классификации, хронологической и культурной атрибуции 888 фигурок. Изучены элементы костюма и украшений, изображенные на скульптуре, проанализированы изображения причёсок и знаков на теле....
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