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Macaulay Thomas Babington. History of England, vol.1

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Philadelphia: porter & Coates, 2006.
1st Baron Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859) was a British historian, essayist, and statesman, best remembered for his five-volume History of England.
Baron Macaulay was a minor poet but a brilliant essayist. His History of England has been criticized for its protestant and Whig bias, but his vast wealth of material, his use of vivid details, and his brilliant, rhetorical, narrative style combined to make it one of the greatest literary works of the 19th century.
Chapter i.
Britain under the Romans.
Britain under the Saxons.
Conversion of the Saxons to Christianity.
Danish Invasions; The Normans.
The Norman Conquest.
Separation of England and Normandy.
Amalgamation of Races.
English Conquests on the Continent.
Wars of the Roses.
Extinction of Villenage.
Beneficial Operation of the Roman Catholic Religion.
The early English polity often misrepresented, and why?
Nature of the Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages.
prerogatives of the early English Kings.
Limitations of the prerogative.
Resistance an ordinary Check on Tyranny in the Middle Ages.
peculiar Character of the English Aristocracy.
Government of the Tudors.
Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages generally turned into Absolute Monarchies.
The English Monarchy a singular Exception.
The Reformation and its Effects.
Origin of the Church of England.
Her peculiar Character.
Relation in which she stood to the Crown.
The puritans.
Their Republican Spirit.
No systematic parliamentary Opposition offered to the Government of Elizabeth.
Question of the Monopolies.
Scotland and Ireland become parts of the same Empire with England.
Diminution of the Importance of England after the Accession of James I.
Doctrine of Divine Right.
The Separation between the Church and the puritans becomes wider.
Accession and Character of Charles I.
Tactics of the Opposition in the House of Commons.
petition of Right.
petition of Right violated; Character and Designs of Wentworth.
Character of Laud.
Star Chamber and High Commission.
Resistance to the Liturgy in Scotland.
A parliament called and dissolved.
The Long Parliament.
First Appearance of the Two great English Parties.
The Remonstrance.
Impeachment of the Five Members.
Departure of Charles from London.
Commencement of the Civil War.
Successes of the Royalists.
Rise of the Independents.
Oliver Cromwell.
Selfdenying Ordinance; Victory of the Parliament.
Domination and Character of the Army.
Rising against the Military Government suppressed.
Proceedings against the King.
His Execution.
Subjugation of Ireland and Scotland.
Expulsion of the Long Parliament.
The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell.
Oliver succeeded by Richard.
Fall of Richard and Revival of the Long Parliament.
Second Expulsion of the Long Parliament.
The Army of Scotland marches into England.
Monk declares for a Free Parliament.
General Election of 1660.
The Restoration.
Chapter iI.
Conduct of those who restored the House of Stuart unjustly censured.
Abolition of Tenures by Knight Service; Disbandment of the Army.
Disputes between the Roundheads and Cavaliers renewed.
Religious Dissension.
Unpopularity of the Puritans.
Character of Charles II.
Character of the Duke of York and Earl of Clarendon.
General Election of 1661.
Violence of the Cavaliers in the new Parliament.
Persecution of the Puritans.
Zeal of the Church for Hereditary Monarchy.
Change in the Morals of the Community.
Profligacy of Politicians.
State of Scotland.
State of Ireland.
The Government become unpopular in England.
War with the Dutch.
Opposition in the House of Commons.
Fall of Clarendon.
State of European Politics, and Ascendancy of France.
Character of Lewis XIV.
The Triple Alliance.
The Country Party.
Connection between Charles II. and France.
Views of Lewis with respect to England.
Treaty of Dover.
Nature of the English Cabinet.
The Cabal.
Shutting of the Exchequer.
War with the United Provinces, and their extreme Danger.
William, Prince of Orange.
Meeting of the Parliament; Declaration of Indulgence.
It is cancelled, and the Test Act passed.
The Cabal dissolved.
Peace with the United Provinces; Administration of Danby.
Embarrassing Situation of the Country Party.
Dealings of that Party with the French Embassy.
Peace of Nimeguen.
Violent Discontents in England.
Fall of Danby; the Popish Plot.
Violence of the new House of Commons.
Temple's Plan of Government.
Character of Halifax.
Character of Sunderland.
Prorogation of the Parliament; Habeas Corpus Act; Second General Election of 1679.
Popularity of Monmouth.
Lawrence Hyde.
Sidney Godolphin.
Violence of Factions on the Subject of the Exclusion Bill.
Names of Whig and Tory.
Meeting of Parliament; The Exclusion Bill passes the Commons; \.
Exclusion Bill rejected by the Lords.
Execution of Stafford; General Election of 1681.
Parliament held at Oxford, and dissolved.
Tory Reaction.
Persecution of the Whigs.
Charter of the City confiscated; Whig Conspiracies.
Detection of the Whig Conspiracies.
Severity of the Government; Seizure of Charters.
Influence of the Duke of York.
He is opposed by Halifax.
Lord Guildford.
Policy of Lewis.
State of Factions in the Court of Charles at the time of his Death.
Great Change in the State of England since 1685.
Population of England in 1685.
Increase of Population greater in the North than in the South.
Revenue in 1685.
Military System.
The Navy.
The Ordnance.
Noneffective Charge; Charge of Civil Government.
Great Gains of Ministers and Courtiers.
State of Agriculture.
Mineral Wealth of the Country.
Increase of Rent.
The Country Gentlemen.
The Clergy.
The Yeomanry; Growth of the Towns; Bristol.
Other Country Towns.
Manchester; Leeds; Sheffield.
Watering-places; Cheltenham; Brighton; Buxton; Tunbridge Wells.
The City.
Fashionable Part of the Capital.
Lighting of London.
Police of London.
Whitefriars; The Court.
The Coffee Houses.
Difficulty of Travelling.
Badness of the Roads.
Stage Coaches.
Post Office.
The Observator.
Scarcity of Books in Country Places; Female Education.
Literary Attainments of Gentlemen.
Influence of French Literature.
Immorality of the Polite Literature of England.
State of Science in England.
State of the Fine Arts.
State of the Common People; Agricultural Wages.
Wages of Manufacturers.
Labour of Children in Factories.
Wages of different Classes of Artisans.
Number of Paupers.
Benefits derived by the Common People from the Progress of.
Delusion which leads Men to overrate the Happiness of preceding Generations.
Death of Charles II.
Suspicions of Poison.
Speech of James II. to the Privy Council.
James proclaimed.
State of the Administration.
New Arrangements.
Sir George Jeffreys.
The Revenue collected without an Act of Parliament.
A Parliament called.
Transactions between James and the French King.
Churchill sent Ambassador to France; His History.
Feelings of the Continental Governments towards England.
Policy of the Court of Rome.
Struggle in the Mind of James; Fluctuations in his Policy.
Public Celebration of the Roman Catholic Rites in the Palace.
His Coronation.
Enthusiasm of the Tories; Addresses.
The Elections.
Proceedings against Oates.
Proceedings against Dangerfield.
Proceedings against Baxter.
Meeting of the Parliament of Scotland.
Feeling of James towards the Puritans.
Cruel Treatment of the Scotch Covenanters.
Feeling of James towards the Quakers.
William Penn.
Peculiar Favour shown to Roman Catholics and Quakers.
Meeting of the English Parliament; Trevor chosen Speaker;
Character of Seymour.
The King's Speech to the Parliament.
Debate in the Commons; Speech of Seymour.
The Revenue voted; Proceedings of the Commons concerning Religion.
Additional Taxes voted; Sir Dudley North.
Proceedings of the Lords.
Bill for reversing the Attainder of Stafford.
Whig Refugees on the Continent.
Their Correspondents in England.
Characters of the leading Refugees; Ayloffe; Wade.
Goodenough; Rumbold.
Lord Grey.
Scotch Refugees; Earl of Argyle.
Sir Patrick Hume; Sir John Cochrane; Fletcher of Saltoun.
Unreasonable Conduct of the Scotch Refugees.
Arrangement for an Attempt on England and Scotland.
John Locke.
Preparations made by Government for the Defence of Scotland.
Conversation of James with the Dutch Ambassadors; Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Argyle from sailing.
Departure of Argyle from Holland; He lands in Scotland.
His Disputes with his Followers.
Temper of the Scotch Nation.
Argyle's Forces dispersed.
Argyle a Prisoner.
His Execution.
Execution of Rumbold.
Death of Ayloffe.
Devastation of Argyleshire.
Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Monmouth from leaving Holland.
His Arrival at Lyme.
His Declaration.
His Popularity in the West of England.
Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Bridport.
Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Axminster;
News of the Rebellion carried to London;
Loyalty of the Parliament.
Reception of Monmouth at Taunton.
He takes the Title of King.
His Reception at Bridgewater.
Preparations of the Government to oppose him.
His Design on Bristol.
He relinquishes that Design.
Skirmish at Philip's Norton; Despondence of Monmouth.
He returns to Bridgewater; The Royal Army encamps at Sedgemoor.
Battle of Sedgemoor.
Pursuit of the Rebels.
Military Executions; Flight of Monmouth.
His Capture.
His Letter to the King; He is carried to London.
His Interview with the King.
His Execution.
His Memory cherished by the Common People.
Cruelties of the Soldiers in the West; Kirke.
Jeffreys sets out on the Western Circuit.
Trial of Alice Lisle.
The Bloody Assizes.
Abraham Holmes.
Christopher Battiseombe; The Hewlings.
Punishment of Tutchin.
Rebels Transported.
Confiscation and Extortion.
Rapacity of the Queen and her Ladies.
Grey; Cochrane; Storey.
Wade, Goodenough, and Ferguson.
Jeffreys made Lord Chancellor.
Trial and Execution of Cornish.
Trials and Executions of Fernley and Elizabeth Gaunt.
Trial and Execution of Bateman.
Persecution of the Protestant Dissenters.
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