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Sanghera P. Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists: Fundamental Principles and Applications for Biologists, Chemists, Computer Scientists, and Nanotechnologists

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Sanghera P. Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists: Fundamental Principles and Applications for Biologists, Chemists, Computer Scientists, and Nanotechnologists
Jоhn Wilеу & Sons, 2011. - 543 p.
This book demystifies difficult concepts and views the subject, and explains key concepts and phenomena in the language of non-physics majors and with simple math, assuming no prior knowledge of the topic. This book is designed as a complete course in quantum mechanics for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in non-physics majors, and applies to courses such as modern physics, physical chemistry and nanotechnology.
The book presents comprehensive coverage of quantum theory supported by experimental results and explained through applications and examples is presented without the use of abstract and complex mathematical tools and formalisms such as bra-ket vectors, Hilbert space, matrix algebra, or group theory. This book takes advantage of the amazing story of how quantum mechanics was developed.
From there, the book:
- Takes the mystery out of the Schrodinger equation, the fundamental equation of quantum physics, by applying it to atoms
- Shows how quantum mechanics explains the periodic table of elements
- Introduces the quantum mechanical concept of spin and spin quantum number, along with Pauli's Exclusion Principle regarding the occupation of quantum states
- Addresses quantum states of molecules in terms of rotation and vibration of diatomic molecules
- Explores the interface between classical statistical mechanics and quantum statistical mechanics
- Discusses quantum mechanics as a common thread through different fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology
The material is also accessible to scientists, engineers, and technologists working in the fields of computer science, biology, chemistry, engineering, and nanotechnology.
Acknowledgments
About the Author
About the Tech Editor
Periodic Table of the Elements
Fundamental Physical Constants
Important Combinations of Physical Constants
Preface: Science, Nanotechnology, and Quantum Physics:
Mind the Gap
First, There Was Classical Physics
Introduction
Physics and Classical Physics
The Classical World of Particles
Physical Quantities
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Rotational Motion
Superposition and Collision of Particles
Superposition
Collision and Scattering
Classical World of Waves
Periodic Waves
Defining Wave Characteristics
Reflection, Refraction, and Scattering
Diffraction and Interference
Diffraction
Interference
Equation of Wave Motion
Light: Particle or Wave?
Understanding Electricity
Understanding Magnetism
Magnetic Field
Magnetic Flu
Understanding Electromagnetism
Types of Electromagnetic and Other Waves
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Maxwell’s Equations
Confinement, Standing Waves, and Wavegroups
Confinement
Standing Waves
Wavegroups
Particles and Waves: The Big Picture
The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature
Gravitational Force
Electromagnetic Force
Weak and Strong Nuclear Forces
Four Fundamental Forces: The Big Picture
Unification: A Secret to Scientific and Technological Revolutions
Special Theory of Relativity
Classical Approach
Separation of Particles and Waves: Either It Is a Particle or a Wave
Either It Is Here or There: The Certainty
The World Is Continuous: Any Value Within a Range Is Possible
Common Grounds Among Particles and Waves: A Red Flag
Summary
Additional Problems
Particle Behavior of Waves
Introduction
The Nature of Light: The Big Picture
Black-Body Radiation
The Classical Collapse
The Quantum Rescue
The Photoelectric Effect
The Photoelectric Effect: The Experiment
The Classical Collapse
The Quantum Rescue
X-Ray Diffraction
The Compton Effect
Living in the Quantum World
Using Black-Body Radiation
Using the Photoelectric Effect
Using Compton Scattering
Summary
Additional Problems
Wave Behavior of Particles
Introduction
Particles and Waves: The Big Picture
The de Broglie Hypothesis
Measuring the Wavelength of Electrons
Quantum Confinement
The Uncertainty Principle
Understanding Particle Waves
Understanding the Uncertainty Principle
Another Form of the Uncertainty Principle
Wave-Particle Duality of Nature
Living in the Quantum World
Seeing the Nanoworld with Electron Waves
Seeing Nanostructures with the Diffraction of Particle Waves
Using Atomic Waves to Navigate Your Way
Summary
Additional Problems
Anatomy of an Atom
Introduction
Quantum Mechanics of an Atom: The Big Picture
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
The Structure of an Atom
The Classical Collapse of an Atom
The Quantum Rescue
Bohr’s Model
The Bohr Model Meets the Spectral Series
Limitations of the Bohr Model
Quantum Mechanics of an Atomic Structure
Principle Energy Levels
Sublevels
Electron Orbitals
Classical Physics or Quantum Physics: Which One Is the True Physics?
Living in the Quantum World
Free Electron Model for Pi Bonding
Summary
Additional Problems
Principles and Formalism of Quantum Mechanics
Introduction
Here Comes Quantum Mechanics
Wave Function: The Basic Building Block of Quantum Mechanics
It Is All about Information
Introducing Probability in Science
Operators: The Information Extractors
Predicting the Measurements
Expectation Values
Operators
Put It All into an Equation
Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues
Double Slit Experiment Revisited
Double Slit Experiment for Particles
Chasing the Electron
The Quantum Reality
Living in the Quantum World
Summary
Additional Problems
The Anatomy and Physiology of an Equation
Introduction
The Schrödinger Wave Equation
The Schrödinger Equation for a Free Particle
Schrödinger Equation for a Particle in a Box
Setting Up and Solving the Schrödinger Equation
Here Comes the Energy Quantization
Exploring the Solutions of the Schrödinger Equation
The Uncertainty and Correspondence Principles: Revisited
Quantum Mechanical Tunneling
A Particle in a Three-Dimensional Box
Harmonic Oscillator
Understanding Harmonic Motion
Harmonic Motion in Quantum Mechanics
Understanding the Wave Functions of a Harmonic Oscillator
Comparing Quantum Mechanical Oscillator with Classical Oscillator
Living in the Quantum World
Summary
Additional Problems
Quantum Mechanics of an Atom
Introduction
Applying the Schrödinger Equation to the Hydrogen Atom
Solving the Schrödinger Equation for the Hydrogen Atom
Separating the Variables in the Schrödinger Equation
Solution of the Azimuthal Equation
Solutions of the Angular Equation
Solutions of the Radial Equation
Solutions of the Schrödinger Equation for the Hydrogen Atom: Putting It All Together
Finding the Electron
Understanding the Quantum Numbers
The Principal Quantum Number and Energy Radiations
The Orbital Quantum Number
Magnetic Quantum Number
The Significance of Hydrogen
Living in the Quantum World
Summary
Additional Problems
Quantum Mechanics of Many-Electron Atoms
Introduction
Two Challenges to Quantum Mechanics: The Periodic Table and the Zeeman Effect
The Periodic Table of Elements
The Split Spectral Lines and the Zeeman Effect
Introducing the Electron Spin
Exclusion Principle
Understanding the Atomic Structure
Understanding Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals
Understanding the Electron Confi guration of Atoms
Understanding the Physical Basis of the Periodic Table
General Trends Across Groups and Periods
Alkalis and Alkaline Earths
Transition Metals
Inert Gases
Halogens
Lanthanides and Actinides
Completing the Story of Angular Momentum
Understanding the Zeeman Effect
Living in the Quantum World
Summary
Additional Problems
Quantum Mechanics of Molecules
Introduction
A System of Molecules in Motion
Bond: The Atomic Bond
Diatomic Molecules
Rotational States of Molecules
Vibrational States of Molecules
Combination of Rotations and Vibrations
Electronic States of Molecules
Living in the Quantum World
Summary
Additional Problems
Statistical Quantum Mechanics
Introduction
Statistical Distributions
Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution
Molecular Systems with Quantum States
Distribution of Vibrational Energies
Vibrational Energy
Population Probability of Vibrational States
Correspondence with Classical Mechanics
Distribution of Rotational Energies
Rotational Energy
Population Probability of Rotational States
Correspondence with Classical Mechanics
Distribution of Translational Energies
Quantum Statistics of Distinguishable Particles: Putting It All Together
Quantum Statistics of Indistinguishable Particles
Planck’s Radiation Formula
Absorption, Emission, and Lasers
Bose–Einstein Condensation
Living in the Quantum World
Summary
Additional Problems
Quantum Mechanics: A Thread Runs through It all
Introduction
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sciences behind Nanoscience
You Need to See Them before You Could
Control Them
Nanoscale Quantum Confi nement of Matter
Buckyballs
Carbon Nanotubes
Nanocrystals
Quantum Dots
Quantum Mechanics for Nanostructures
Favoring Balls and Tubes
Fruits of Quantum Confi nement
Quick Overview of Microelectronics
Microelectronics: A Hindsight
Basics of Microchips
Quantum Computing
Quantum Biology
Four Fundamental Nanostructures of Life
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Sizes of Biological Particles
Diving Deeper into the Cell with Quantum Mechanics
Exploring the Interface of Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics
Living in the Quantum World
Summary
Additional Problems
Bibliography
Index
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