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Van Basshuysen R., Schafer F. (eds.) Internal Combustion Engine Handbook: Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives. Part 2

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Van Basshuysen R., Schafer F. (eds.) Internal Combustion Engine Handbook: Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives. Part 2
SAE International, 2004. 852 р. (449-852 pp.) — ISBN:0768011396.
Part 1 .
Thorough in its presentation, this essential resource illustrates the latest level of knowledge in engine development, paying particular attention to the presentation of theory and practice in a balanced ratio. Almost 850 pages in length - with 1,250 illustrations and nearly 700 bibliographical references - the Internal Combustion Engine Handbook covers all of this component's complexities, including an insightful look into the internal combustion engine's future viability. An ideal publication for specialists in the automotive, engine, mineral oil, and accessories industries, this book will also prove to be useful for students, patent lawyers, the motor vehicle trade, government offices, journalists, and interested members of the public.
Ignition
Spark-Ignition Engine
Introduction to Ignition
Requirements of the Ignition System
Minimum Ignition Energy
Fundamentals of Spark Ignition
Phases of the Spark
Energy Transmission Efficiency
Coil Ignition System (Inductive)
Other Ignition Systems
Summary and Outlook
Spark Plugs
Demands on Spark Plugs
Design
Heat Range
Required Voltage for Ignition
Ignition Characteristic (and Mixture Ignition)
Wear
Application
Diesel Engines
Autoignition and Combustion
Diesel Engine Cold Starts
Important Influential Parameters
Start Evaluation Criteria
Components for Supporting Cold Starts
Glow Plug Systems
Heating Flange
Outlook
Combined Systems
Measurement of Ionic Current
Regulated Glow Plug Systems
Combustion
Principles
Fuels
Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
Combustion in SI Engines
Mixture Formation
Intake Manifold Injection
Direct Injection
Ignition
Combustion Process
Flame Propagation
Mean Pressure and Fuel Consumption
Cyclical Fluctuations
Engine Knock
Combustion in Diesel Engines
Mixture Formation
Phenomenology
Fuel Jet Propagation
Autoignition
Combustion Process
Phenomenological Description
Equivalent Combustion Curves
Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer Model
Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficients
Combustion Systems
Combustion Systems for Diesel Engines
Diesel Combustion
Diesel Four-Stroke Combustion Systems
Methods using Indirect Fuel Injection (IDI)
Direct Fuel Injection Method (DI)
Comparison of Combustion Systems
Special Methods and Features
Spark-Injection Engines
Combustion Processes in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Engines
Combustion Process of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engines
Two-Stroke Diesel Engines
Two-Stroke SI Engines
Electronics and Mechanics for Engine Management and Transmission Shift Control Environmental Demands
Stand-Alone Products (Separate Devices)
Connecting Approaches
Integrated Products (MTM = Mechatronic Transmission Module)
Electronic Design, Structures, and Components
Basic Structure
Electronic Components
C Knocking Input Filter Component
Driver Stage Component
Microcontroller
Voltage Regulator
Electronics in the Electronic Control Unit
General Description
Signal Conditioning
Signal Evaluation
Signal Output
Power Supply
CAN Bus Interface
Electronics for Transmission ECUs
Software Structures
Task of the Software In Controlling Engines
Demands on the Software
The Layer Approach to Software
The Software Development Process
Torque-Based Functional Structure for Engine Management
Model-Based Functions Using the Example of Intake Manifold Charging
Functions
λ Regulation
Antijerk Function
Throttle Valve Control
Knocking Control
"On-Board" Diagnosis (OBD)
Self-Diagnosis Tasks
Monitoring the Catalytic Converter
Safety Approaches
The Powertrain
Powertrain Architecture
The Motor-Vehicle's Longitudinal Dynamics
Transmission Types
Power Level and Signal Processing Level
Transmission Management
Functions
Overview
Driving or Gearshift Strategy
Automatic Transmissions with Planetary Gears and Torque Converter
Automated Stick-Shift Transmissions
Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT)
Integrated Powertrain Management (IPM)
The Integrated Starter-Motor/Alternator (ISG)
SG: A System Overview
Torque Structure in a Motor Vehicle
Starter-Motor/Alternator Structure
Description of the Starter-Motor/Alternator's Most Important
Modes of Use
Converters (Powertrain Management and Voltage Converters)
Requirements Made on the Electronics from a System Viewpoint
Function Groups and Design Criteria
Cooling
Classification of the Converter's Power Electronics
DC/DC Converters
Electrical Machine
Design Criteria
Simulation Tools
Thermal Simulation
Mechanical Strengths
Requirements Made on the Electrical Machine
Series Development
Sensors
Temperature Sensors
Knock Sensors
Exhaust Gas Sensors
Lambda Sensors
NOx Sensors
Pressure Sensors
Normal Pressure Sensors
Piezoresistive Measurement Principle
Capacitive Measurement Principle
Medium Pressure Sensors
High-Pressure Sensors
Technical Boundary Conditions
Signal Transmission
Measuring Precision
Air Mass Sensors
Comparison of Air Mass-Controlled and Intake Manifold Pressure-Controlled Systems
Measuring Principles
Hot-Film Anemometer
Secondary Air Mass Sensors (SAF)
Speed Sensors
Passive Speed Sensors
Active Sensors
Actuators
Drives for Charge Controllers
Pneumatic Drives
Electric Drives
Stepping Motor
DC Motor
Torque Motor
Throttle Valve Actuators
Key Function in SI Engines
Key Function in Diesel Engines and in Quality-Controlled SI Engines (Direct Injection)
Additional Functions
Idle-Speed Control of SI Engines
Position Signal
Dashpot Function
Cruise Control Function
"Drive by Wire"/E-Gas
Charge Pressure Control
Vacuum/Prethrottle Actuators
Swirl and Tumble Plates
Swirl Plate Actuators (Swirl/Tumble Actuators)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valves
Evaporative Emissions Components
Canister-Purge Valves
Evaporative Emissions Diagnostics
Tank Diagnostics with Pressure
Tank Diagnostics with Vacuum
Cooling of Internal Combustion Engines
General
Demands on the Cooling System
Principles for Calculation and Simulation Tools Engine Cooling Subsystems
Coolant Cooling
Radiator Protection Media
Intercooling
Exhaust Gas Cooling
Oil Cooling
Fans and Fan Drives
Cooling Modules
Overall Engine Cooling System
Exhaust Emissions
Legal Regulations
Europe
California, USA
Japan
Harmonizing Exhaust Emission Regulations
Measuring Exhaust Emissions
Measuring Techniques for Certifying Automobiles
Measuring Technology for Engine Development
Pollutants and Their Origin
Spark-Injection Engines
Restricted Exhaust Emission Components
Unrestricted Exhaust Components
Diesel Engines
Restricted Exhaust Components
Unrestricted Exhaust Emission Components
Reducing Pollutants
Engine-Related Measures
Spark-Injection Engines
Diesel Engines
Exhaust Gas Treatment for Spark-Ignition Engines
Catalytic Converter Design and Chemical Reactions
Catalytic Converter Approaches for Stoichiometric Engines
Three-Way Catalytic Converter
Oxygen Storage Mechanism
Cold Start Strategies
Deactivation and Its Effect
Catalytic Converter Approaches for Lean-Burn Engines
Options for NOx Reduction in Lean Exhaust Gas
The NOx Storage Catalytic Converter
System with a Precatalytic Converter and NOx Adsorber
Metal Catalytic Converter Substrates
Exhaust Treatment in Diesel Engines
Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters
Pollutants in Diesel Exhaust
Characteristics of Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters
Deactivating the Catalyst Surface
Evaluating Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters
NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Passenger Cars
Operating Range of Storage Catalytic Converters
Desulfurization
Regeneration Methods
Particle Filters
Particle Definitions and Particle Properties
Goals of Particle Filtration
Requirements for Filter Media and Technical Solutions
Deposition and Adhesion
Regeneration and Periodic Cleaning
Regeneration Emissions and Secondary Emissions
Pressure Loss
Installation Area and System Integration
Damage Mechanisms, Experience
Quality Criteria
Performance Test, Type Test, OBD, Field Control
Catalytic Soot Filter
Particle Measuring
Operating Fluids
Fuels
Diesel Fuel
Diesel Fuel Components and Composition
Characteristics and Properties
Additives for Diesel Fuel
Alternative Diesel Fuels
Gasoline
Gasoline Components and Composition
Characteristics and Properties
Alternative Gasolines
Lubricants
Types of Lubricants
Task of Lubrication
Types of Lubrication
Lubrication Requirements
Viscosity/Viscosity Index (V.I.)
Influence of Temperature on Viscosity
Influence of the Pressure on the Viscosity
Influence of Shear Speed on Viscosity
Basic Liquids
Mineral Basic Oils
Synthetic Basic Liquid
Additives for Lubricants
Improvers
Detergents and Dispersants
Antioxidants and Corrosion Inhibitors
Friction and Wear Reducers (EP/AW Additives)
Foam Inhibitors
Engine Oils for Four-Stroke Engines
SAE Viscosity Classes for Engine Oils
Single-Grade Engine Oil
Multigrade Oils
Fuel Economy Oils
Break-In Oils
Gas Engine Oils
Methanol Engine Oils
Hydrogen Engine Oils
Performance Classes
Evaluating Used Oil
Racing Engine Oils
Wankel Engine Oils
Engine Oils for Two-Stroke Engines
Two-Stroke Performance Classes
Two-Stroke Test Methods
Coolant
Frost Protection
Corrosion Protection
Specifications
Filtration of Operating Fluids
Air Filter
The Importance of Air Filtration for Internal Combustion Engines
Impurities in Engine Intake Air
Data for Assessment of Air-Filter Media
Measuring Methods and Evaluation
Requirements Made on Modern Air-Filter Systems
Design Criteria for Engine-Air Filter Elements
Filter Housings
Design of Filter Housings
Fuel Filters Gasoline Fuel Filters
Diesel-Fuel Filters
The Performance Data of Fuel Filters
Engine-Oil Filtration
Wear and Filtration
Full-How Oil Filters
Removal Efficiency and Filter Fineness
Bypass Oil Filtration
Calculation and Simulation
Strength and Vibration Calculation
Procedures and Methods
Selected Examples of Applications
Piston Calculations
Flow Calculation
One- and Quasidimensional Methods
Three-Dimensional Flow Calculation
Selected Examples of Application
Combustion Diagnostics
Discussion
Indicating
Measuring Systems
Quality Criteria
Indicating: Prospects
Visualization
Functions and Discussion
Visualization Methods for Real Engine Operation
The Radiant Properties of Gas, Gasoline, and Diesel Flames
Flame Spectroscopy
Flame Propagation in Premixed Charges with Supplied Ignition
Flame Propagation in Diffusion Combustion in a Diesel Engine
Visualization of Combustion in Real Engine Operation by the Flame's Intrinsic Luminescence
Technical Exploitation: Flame Propagation
Visualization of Illuminated Processes
Visualization of Mixture Distribution
Visualization of Velocity Fields
Visualization: The Future
Fuel Consumption
General Influencing Factors
Air Resistance
Weight
Wheel Resistance
Fuel Consumption
Engine Modifications
Downsizing
Diesel Engine
Gasoline Engine
The Lean-Burn Engine Concept and Direct Injection
Variable Valve Timing
Ignition
Cylinder Shutoff
Concept for Reduction of Fuel Consumption
Consumption Benefits in the Part-Load Range
Transmission Ratios
Selection of Direct Transmission
Selection of Overall Transmission Ratio in the Highest Gear
Driver Behavior
CO2 Emissions
CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption
The Influence of Engine Use on CO2 Emissions
The Trend in Global CO2 Emissions
Noise Emissions
Basic Physical Principles and Terms
Legal Provisions Concerning Emitted Noise
Methods of Measuring Emitted Noise
Critical Evaluation of the Informational Value of the Emitted Noise Measuring Method
Emitted Noise Limits, International Legislation; Future Trends
Sources of Emitted Noise
Emitted Noise-Reduction Provisions
Provisions on the Engine
Provisions on the Vehicle
Engine Noise in the Vehicle Interior
Acoustic Guidelines for the Engine Designer
Measuring and Analytical Methods
Psychoacoustics
Sound Engineering
Simulation Tools
Antinoise Systems: Noise Reduction using Antinoise
Alternative Propulsion Systems
The Rationales for Alternatives
The Wankel Engine
Electric Propulsion
Hybrid Propulsion System
Storage Systems
The Stirling Engine
Gas Turbines
The Steam Motor
The Fuel Cell as a Vehicle Propulsion System
The Structure of the PEM Fuel Cell
Hydrogen as the Fuel
Methanol as the Fuel
Gasoline Engine Fuel
The Fuel Cell in the Vehicle
Evaluation of the Fuel Cell vis-à-vis Other Propulsion Systems
Summary
Outlook
Index
About the Editors
Color Section
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