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Van Basshuysen R., Schafer F. (eds.) Internal Combustion Engine Handbook: Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives. Part 1

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Van Basshuysen R., Schafer F. (eds.) Internal Combustion Engine Handbook: Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives. Part 1
SAE International, 2004. 852 р. (1-448 рр.) — ISBN:0768011396.
Part 2 .
Thorough in its presentation, this essential resource illustrates the latest level of knowledge in engine development, paying particular attention to the presentation of theory and practice in a balanced ratio. Almost 850 pages in length - with 1,250 illustrations and nearly 700 bibliographical references - the Internal Combustion Engine Handbook covers all of this component's complexities, including an insightful look into the internal combustion engine's future viability. An ideal publication for specialists in the automotive, engine, mineral oil, and accessories industries, this book will also prove to be useful for students, patent lawyers, the motor vehicle trade, government offices, journalists, and interested members of the public.
Contents
Historical Review
Definition and Classification of Reciprocating Piston Engines
Definitions
Potentials for Classification
Combustion Processes
Fuel
Working Cycles
Mixture Generation
Gas Exchange Control
Supercharging
Configuration
Ignition
Cooling
Load Adjustment
Applications
Speed and Output Graduations
Characteristics
Piston Displacement and Bore-to-Stroke Ratio
Compression Ratio
Rotational Speed and Piston Speed
Torque and Power
Fuel Consumption
Gas Work and Mean Pressure
Efficiency
Air Throughput and Cylinder Charge
Air-Fuel Ratio
Maps
Consumption Maps
Emission Maps
Ignition and Injection Maps
Exhaust Gas Temperature Maps
Thermodynamic Fundamentals
Cyclical Processes
Comparative Processes
Simple Model Processes
Constant Volume Cycle
Constant Pressure Cycle
Seiliger Process
Comparison of the Cyclical Processes
Energy Losses
Open Comparative Processes
Work Cycle of the Perfect Engine
Elements of Calculation
Work of the Perfect Engine
Effectiveness of the Perfect Engine
Exergy Loss in the Perfect Cycle
Approximation of the Real Working Cycle
Models to Determine Combustion Behavior
Efficiency
Energy Balance in the Engine
Balance Equation
Crank Gears
Crankshaft Drive
Design and Function
Forces Acting on the Crankshaft Drive
Tangential Force Characteristic and Average Tangential Force
Inertial Forces
Inertial Forces in Single-Cylinder Crank Gears
Inertial Forces in a Two-Cylinder V Crank Gear
Inertial Forces and Inertial Torque in Multicylinder Crank Gears
Example
Mass Balancing
Balancing Single-Cylinder Crank Gears
Balancing Multicylinder Crank Gears
Internal Torque
Throw and Firing Sequences
Rotational Oscillations
Fundamentals
Reduction of the Machine System
Natural Frequencies and Modes of Natural Vibration
Exciter Forces And Exciter Work
Measures to Reduce Crankshaft Excursions
Two-Mass Flywheels
Engine Components
Pistons / Wristpins / Wristpin Circlips
Pistons
Requirements and Functions
Engineering Designs
Offsetting the Boss Bore
Installation Play and Running Play
Piston Masses
Operating Temperatures
Piston Cooling
Piston Designs
Piston Manufacture
Protection of Running Surfaces/Surfaces
Piston Materials
Wristpins
Functions
Designs
Requirements and Dimensioning
Materials
Wristpin Snap Rings
Connecting Rod
Design of the Connecting Rod
Loading
Conrod Bolts
Design
Conrod Ratio
Conrod Manufacture
Manufacturing the Blank
Machining
Conrod Materials
Piston Rings
Embodiments
Compression Rings
Oil Control Rings
Ring Combinations
Characterizing Features
Manufacturing
Shaping
Wear-Protection Layers
Surface Treatments
Contact Surface Shapes for Piston Rings
Materials for Piston Rings
Loading, Damage, Wear, Friction
Engine Block
Assignments and Functions Engine Block Design
Types of Engine Blocks
Optimizing Acoustic Properties
Minimizing Engine Block Mass
Casting Processes for Engine Blocks
Die Casting
Die Casting
Lost-Foam Process
Sand Casting
Squeeze Casting
Cylinders
Cylinder Designs
Monolithic Design
Insertion Technique
Bonding Technology
Machining Cylinder Running Surfaces
Machining Processes
Cylinder Cooling
Water Cooling
Air Cooling
Oil Pan
Oil Pan Design
Crankcase Venting
Conventional Crankcase Ventilation
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PVC) System
Vacuum-Regulated Crankcase Ventilation
Cylinder Head
Basic Design for the Cylinder Head
Layout of the Basic Geometry
Determining the Manufacturing Processes
Layout of the Gas Exchange Components
Variable Valve Control
Cylinder Head Engineering
Laying out the Rough Dimensions
Combustion Chamber and Port Design
Valve Train Design
Cooling Concepts
Lubricating Oil Management
Engineering Design Details
Engineering in Construction Steps
Using CAD in Engineering
Computer-Assisted Design
Casting Process
Sand Casting
Die Casting
Lost-Foam Process (Full Mold Process)
Pressure Die-Casting Process
Model and Mold Construction
Machining and Quality Assurance
Mass-Production Manufacture
Prototype Manufacturing
Quality Assurance for Cylinder Heads
Shapes Implemented for Cylinder Heads
Cylinder Heads for Gasoline Engines
Cylinder Heads for Diesel Engines
Special Cylinder Head Designs
Perspectives in Cylinder Head Technology
Crankshafts
Function in the Vehicle
The Crankshaft in the Reciprocating Piston Engine
Requirements
Manufacturing and Properties
Process and Materials
Materials Properties for Crankshafts Lightweight Engineering and Future Trends
Hollow Cast Crankshafts
ADI Austempered Ductile Iron
Increasing Component Strength through Postcasting Treatment
Valve Train Components
Valve Train
Direct Drive Valve Trains
Indirect Drive Valve Trains
Hydraulic Valve Play Compensation
Mechanical Valve Play Adjustment
Future Trends
Belt Tensioning Systems, Idler and Deflection Pulleys
Introduction
Automatic Belt Tensioning System for Synchronous Belt Drives
dler and Deflection Pulleys for Synchronous Belt Drives
Prospects for the Future
Chain Tensioning and Guide Systems
Introduction
Chain Tensioning Element
Tensioning and Guide Rails
Sprockets
Valves
Functions and Explanation of Terms and Concepts
Types of Valves and Manufacturing Techniques
Monometallic Valves
Bimetallic Valves
Hollow Valve
Embodiments
Valve Head
Valve Seat
Valve Stem
Valve Materials
Heat Treatment
Surface Finishing
Special Valve Designs
Exhaust Control Valves
Valve Keepers
Tasks and Functioning
Manufacturing Techniques
alve Rotation Devices
Function
Designs and Functioning
Valve Springs
Valve Seat Inserts
Introduction
Demands Made on Valve Seat Inserts
Loading on Valve Seat Inserts
Materials and Their Properties
Geometry and Tolerances
Cylinder Head Geometry and Assembly
Valve Guides
Requirements for Valve Guides
Loading on Valve Guides
Materials and Properties
Materials
Materials Properties
Geometry of the Valve Guide
Installing in the Cylinder Head
Oil Pump
Overview of Oil Pump Systems
Internal Gear Pump
External Gear Pump
Vane Pumps
Benefits and Drawbacks of Individual Pump Systems Regulation Principles
Direct Regulation
Indirect Regulation
Regulation in the Clean Oil Stream
Two-Stage or Multistage Regulation
Two-Stage Regulation Pump
Regulated Internal Gear Pump
Regulated External Gear Pump
Regulated Vane Pump
Engineering Basics
Crankshaft Pump
Sump Pump
Key Oil Pump Values Taken from Practice
Comparison between Crankshaft and Sump Pumps
Cavitation and Noise Emissions
Calculation
Numerical Simulation of Flow—CFD
One-Dimensional Simulation of Flow Grids
Camshaft
Camshaft Functions
Valve Train Configurations
Structure of a Camshaft
Technologies and Materials
Cast Camshaft
Assembled Camshaft
Steel Camshaft
Materials Properties and Recommended Matches
Reduction of Mass
Factors Influencing Camshaft Loading
Designing Cam Profiles
Kinematics Calculation
Dynamics Calculations
Camshaft Shifter Systems
Chain Drive
Chain Designs
Typical Chain Values
Sprockets
Chain Guide Elements
Belt Drives
Belt Drives Used to Drive Camshafts
Synchronous Belt Drive
Synchronous Belt Drive System
Synchronous Belt Dynamics
Application Examples
Toothed V-Belt Drive to Power Auxiliary Units
Micro-V Drive Belts
Auxiliary Component Drive System
Application Examples
Bearings in Internal Combustion Engines
Fundamentals
Radial Bearing
Axial Bearing
Calculating and Dimensioning Engine Bearings
Loading
Bearing Journal Displacement Path
Elastohydrodynamic Calculation
Major Dimensions: Diameter, Width
Oil Feed Geometry
Precision Dimensions
Bearing Materials
Bearing Metals
Overlays
Types of Bearings—Structure, Load-Bearing Capacity, Use
Solid Bearings Two-Material Bearing
Three-Material Bearing
Miba™ Grooved Bearings
Sputter Bearing
Bearing Failure
Progress of Damage
Types of Bearing Damage
Prospects for the Future
Intake Systems
Thermodynamics in Air Intake Systems
Acoustics
Sealing Systems
Cylinder Head Sealing Systems
Ferrolastic Elastomer Head Gaskets
Metal-Elastomer Head Gaskets
Metaloflex Layered Metal Head Gaskets
Prospects for the Future
Special Seals
Functional Description of the Flat Seal
Elastomer Seals
Metal-Elastomer Seals
Special Metaloseal Gaskets
Prospects for the Future
Elastomer Sealing Systems
Elastomer Seals
Metal-Elastomer Gaskets
Modules
Development Methods
Finite Element Analysis
Simulation in the Laboratory—Testing Functions and Service Life
Threaded Connectors at the Engine
High-Strength Threaded Connectors
Quality Requirements
Threaded Connectors
Head Bolt
Main Bearing Cap Bolt
Conrod Bolt
Belt Pulley Bolt
Flywheel Bolt
Camshaft Bearing Cap Bolt
Oil Pan Attaching Screws
Threaded Connections in Magnesium Components
Screw Tightening Process
Torque-Controlled Tightening
Rotation-Angle Controlled Tightening
Tightening under Yield Point Control
Exhaust Manifold
Manifold Development Process
Manifolds as Individual Components
Cast Manifold
Tube Manifold
Single-Wall, Half-Shell Manifold
Manifolds with Air Gap Insulation (AGI Manifold)
The Manifold as a Submodule
Integrated Manifold and Catalytic Converter
Integrated Manifold and Turbochanger
Manifold Components
Control Mechanisms for Two-Stroke Cycle Engines
Lubrication
Tribological Principles
Friction
Wear
Lubrication System Lubrication
Components and Function
Friction
Parameters
Friction States
Methods of Measuring Friction
Influence of the Operating State and the Boundary Conditions
Run-in State of the Internal Combustion Engine
Oil Viscosity
Temperature Influence
Engine Operating Point
Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption
Friction Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines Already Built
Breakdown of Friction
Engine Power Unit
Crankshaft
Conrod Bearing and Piston Group
Mass Balancing
alve Timing (Valve Train and Timing Gear)
Auxiliaries
Oil Pump
Coolant Pump
Alternator
Fuel Injection Pump
Air Conditioning Compressor
Radiator Fan
Power Steering Pump
Vacuum Pump
Charge Cycle
Gas Exchange Devices in Four-Stroke Engines
Valve Gear Designs
Components of the Valve Gear
Kinematics and Dynamics of the Valve Gear
Design of Gas Exchange Devices in Four-Stroke Engines
Calculating Charge Cycles
The Charge Cycle in Two-Stroke Engines
Scavenging
Gas Exchange Organs
Scavenging Air Supply
Variable Valve Actuation
Camshaft Timing Devices
Overview of the Functional Principles of Camshaft Timing Devices
The Effects of Camshaft Timing Devices on Engines
Camshaft Adjusters for Production Engines
Reflections about Camshaft Adjusters
Systems with Stepped Variation of the Valve Stroke or Opening Time
Infinitely Variable Valve Actuation
Mechanical Systems
Hydraulically Actuated Systems
Electromechanical Systems
Pulse Charges and Load Control of Reciprocating Piston Engines Using an Air Stroke Valve
Introduction
Design and Operation of the Air Stroke Valve
Options for Influencing the Charge Cycle
Dynamic Supercharging in Induction Engines (Pulse Charge)
Supporting and Recharging Supercharged Engines
Throttle-Free Load Control
EGR Control
Hot Charging
Cold Charging Supercharged Engines
Cylinder Shutoff
Prototype for Engine Tests
Parameters and Design
Implemented Prototype
Demonstration of Function in Single-Cylinder Engines
Increasing Air Expenditure by Dynamic Supercharging
Increasing Torque by Dynamic Supercharging
Required Air Stroke Valve Operating Times in Dynamic Supercharging
Hot Charging
Summary and Outlook
Supercharging of Internal Combustion Engine
Mechanical Supercharging
Exhaust Gas Turbocharging
Intercooling
Interaction of Engine and Compressor
Four-Stroke Engine in the Compressor Map
Mechanical Supercharging
Exhaust Gas Turbocharging
Dynamic Behavior
Additional Measures for Supercharged Internal Combustion Engines
SI Engines
Diesel Engines
Mixture Formation and Related Systems
Internal Mixture Formation
External Mixture Formation
Mixture Formation using Carburetors
Mode of Operation of the Carburetor
Designs
Number of Intake Air Ducts
Position of the Intake Air Duct
Designs for Special Applications
Important Auxiliary Systems on Carburetors
Electronically Controlled Carburetors
Constant Vacuum Carburetor
Operating Behavior
Lambda Closed-Loop Control
Mixture Formation by Means of Gasoline Injection
Intake Manifold Injection Systems
Systems for Direct Injection
Air-Supported Direct Injection
High-Pressure Injection
Injected Fuel Metering
Mixture Formation in Diesel Engines
Injection Systems—An Overview
Systems with Injection-Synchronous Pressure Generation
Individual Pump Systems with a Line
Inline Fuel Injection Pumps
Distributor Injection Pump
Pump Nozzle System
Systems with a Central Pressure Reservoir
High-Pressure Pump
Rail and Lines
Injectors
Injection Nozzle
Electronics
Developmental Trends
Injection Nozzles and Nozzle-Holder Assemblies
Adapting the Injection System to the Engine
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