Springer-Verlag, 2012. 199 p. ISSN 1865-3529, e-ISSN 1865-3537, ISBN 978-1-4471-2812-0, e-ISBN 978-1-4471-2813-7The Power Makers - the producers of our electricity - must meet the demands of their customers while also addressing the threat of climate change. There are widely differing views about solutions to electricity generation in an emission constrained world. Some see the problem as relatively straight forward, requiring deep cuts in emissions now by improving energy efficiency, energy conservation and using only renewable resources. Many electricity industry engineers and scientists see the problem as being much more involved. The Power Makers ’ Challenge: and the need for Fission Energy looks at why using only conventional renewable energy sources is not quite as simple as it seems. Following a general introduction to electricity and its distribution, the author quantifies the reductions needed in greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector in the face of ever increasing world demands for electricity. It provides some much needed background on the many energy sources available for producing electricity and discusses their advantages and limitations to meet both the emission reduction challenge and electricity demand. By analyzing the three main groups of energy sources: renewable energy, fossil fuels and fission energy (nuclear power), readers can assess the ability of each group to meet the challenge of both reducing emissions and maintaining reliable supply at least cost. It is written for both non-technical and technical readersContents About Electricity What is Electricity? Electricity: Simply Expressed How Do We Measure Electricity? The Big Differences Between Electricity and Water The Power Makers’ Challenge Faraday’s Miracle Faraday’s Contribution Generators Explained What Drives the Generator? What Powers the Engines? Power Generator Types Comparing Generators Capacity Factor Poles and Wires Electricity Networks Transmission Losses Controlling the Network Advantages of Transmission Networks The Balancing Act Demand and Supply Network Reliability Reserve Capacity Dollars and Cents Calculating Generating Costs Typical Generating Costs Baseload, Intermediate, and Peak Load Getting the Mix Right Transmission Costs Energy Efficiency Energy Conservation Energy Reduction Targets References The Carbon Challenge Climate Change Summary Reducing Emissions A Price on Carbon Emission Intensity The Power Makers’ Response References Renewable Energy Many Options Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Tidal Waves Dilute Resources ariability Nature’s Curse Natural Variability of RE Resources Why RE Variability is a Problem Negative Load Forecasting Measuring Variability ariability Across Generators Managing Variability References Nature’s Saviors Reliable and Proven More Hydropower More Conventional Geothermal More Biomass CSP with Storage EGS Summary References Storing Electricity Why Do We Need Energy Storage? Pumped-Hydro Storage Compressed Air Energy Storage Hydrogen Energy Storage Batteries Energy Storage Costs Demand Management: An Alternative to Storage? Energy Storage Summary References Smoke and Mirrors Comparing Apples with Oranges Comparing Energy Outputs Capacity Credit Comparing RE Penetration Comparing Different Networks Comparing the Costs of Electricity RE Energy Use Comparing Efficiencies Comparison of Building Materials Comparing Land Use Baseload Myths References Clean Coal Why Clean Coal? Reducing the Coal Emission Intensity Carbon Capture and Storage Alternatives to Coal References Baseload Alternatives What Makes a Baseload Power Station? Which Energy Sources Can Replace Coal? Can Gas Deliver Us From Coal? But Isn’t Nuclear Dangerous? Reference Fission Energy Fission, Not Combustion How Do Coal and Fission Energy Produce Electricity? Fission Reactors Fuel and Waste Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost What’s the Drama? Reference Safety First Reactor Safety Nuclear Waste Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Safety Summary References More Smoke and Mirrors Myth 1: Renewables Make Nuclear Unnecessary Myth 2: Nuclear Energy is Too Expensive Myth 3: Nuclear Plants Could Not be Built in Time Myth 4: Uranium Supplies are Not Sustainable Myth 5: All Radiation is Dangerous Myth 6: Nuclear GHG Emissions are Huge Myth 7: Gas is Less Risky for Investors References s Fission Really Necessary? Challenging Times Renewable Energy Clean Coal Fission Energy The Next Generation of Fission Fuel Recycling Generation III Reactors Modular Construction Fast Reactors References The Melting Pot ariable Loads are Here to Stay ntermediate and Peak Loads ariability Won’t Go Away Reference Cost Matters Comparing Generator Costs The Generator Mix The Impact of a Rising Carbon Price Reference Distributed Generation and Storage Distributed Generation Decentralized Energy Community Energy Storage Reducing Demand Variability Distributed Generation Future Smart Grids The Vision What Would be Needed for a Smart Grid? What are the Benefits? What are the Risks? References Electric Transport The Demise of Oil The Rise of the Electric Car How Will We Refuel Our Electric Vehicles? How Much Electricity Would Transport Need? What Will be the Impact on the Electricity Network? Summing It All Up Carbon Challenge Reducing Emissions An All-Renewable Future Clean Coal and Gas Fission Energy Melting Pot Future Technologies Conclusion Reference Author Biography Appendix A: Definition of Terms Appendix B: Power Generation and Network Control Appendix C: Wind Power Appendix D: Solar Power Appendix E: Energy Storage Appendix F: Carbon Capture and Storage Appendix G: Nuclear Power Appendix H: Electricity Costs and Markets Index
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