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Technology Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Waste Tire Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Liquefaction

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Technology Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Waste Tire Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Liquefaction
Contractor’s Report to the Board, University of California Riverside, IWMB 2006. – 97 p.
Pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction (PGL) represent a viable alternative for the disposal of scrap tires (also referred to as waste tires in this report). These technologies are currently used for the conversion of carbonaceous materials more extensively in Europe and Japan than in California, but may become more important as the supplies of natural fuels become depleted. The objective of this report was to assess the technological, environmental, and economic features of the application of PGL to process scrap tires.
Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Acknowledgements
Executive Summary
Introduction
Descriptions of Fundamental PGL Technology With Variations
Feedstock Preparation and Introduction into the Pyrolysis or Gasification Reactor
Pyrolysis and Gasification Reactions
Post-Processing of Gaseous, Liquid, and Solid Products and Residues
Liquefaction
Survey of PGL Facilities
Worldwide
Environmental Impact of PGL Operations
Air Emissions
Liquid Residues
Solid Waste Residues
Assessment of PGL Tire Products and Their Markets
Tire Composition
Current Markets for Waste Tires
Alternative Conversion Technology Products
Implications and Comparisons with Current Markets
PGL Operating Costs
Processes Surveyed and Analyzed
Summary Results
Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Analysis of Price Sensitivity for PGL Operations
Factors That Affect the Cost of PGL Operations
Sensitivity to World Price of Energy
Recommendations
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Glossary of Terms
Appendix A. Survey Questionnaire
Appendix B. Descriptions of PGL Technologies Identified From Survey and Literature Review
Appendix C. Removed
Appendix D. The Tire Production Process and Materials Used in the Production of Tires
Appendix E. Life-Cycle Cost Analyses of PGL Facilities
Source Reference Notes
Figures
World Crude Oil Price History
US Consumer Price Indexes and Percent Annual Rate of Inflation Used to Correct Earlier Quoted
Prices to 2004 Dollar Equivalents
Economic Effects of Changes in Tire Pre-treatment Costs on First Year Profit in 2008 and Cumulative Cash Flow in 2016
Effects of Changes in Selling Price of Diesel Fuel and Pre-Treatment Costs on Facility’s Cumulative Cash Flow in 2016
Effects of Changes in Selling Price of Diesel Fuel and Pre-Treatment Costs on Facility’s Discounted Cash Flow in 2016
Process Flow Diagram for 20 MWe MSW Gasification Power Plant Recently Proposed to a Municipality in California
Simplified Process Flow Diagram for 70 MWe Biomass Gasification Power Plant (Designed under U.S. DOE Contract DE-FC26-01NT41531)
Flow Chart Summarizing Tire Manufacturing Process
Tables
Technologies Identified for PGL of Tires
Other Potential Technologies for PGL of Tires
Emissions for Various Pyrolysis/Gasification Facilities/Technologies
Emission Estimates from Pyrolysis Facility, Conrad Industries
California Facilities Permitted to Burn Scrap Tires with Coal
2001 Criteria Pollutant Emissions from Tire Burning Facilities (Tons/Year)
2001 Toxics Emissions from Tire Burning Facilities (Pounds/Year)
General Trends Observed when Using TDF
EPA Leachability Limits for Non-Hazardous Waste
Percent Composition of Passenger, Bus, and Truck Tires
Ultimate Analysis for Scrap Tires vs. Coal
California Waste Tire Generation, Diversion, and Disposal, 1990–2002
Potential Uses for Scrap Tires
Products Available per Process Used
Fuels and Chemicals that can be Produced from Synthesis Gas Feeds
Estimated Number of Scrap Tires Available for Energy and Steel Recovery
Estimated Energy and Steel Content of Scrap Tires and TDF Used for PGL Process Analyses
Relationship of Crude Oil, Other Energy Products and Average Scrap Tire Values
Estimated Gross Revenue from Gasification with Synthetic Fuel Production, Electricity and Process Heat
Estimated Gross Revenue per Tire from Gasification, Pyrolysis and Liquefaction Processes
Capital and O&M Cost Estimates Presented from Various Sources, Normalized and Corrected for 2004 Values
Results Matrix of Life Cycle Cost Study for Tire Gasification Plant
Estimated Capital and Operating Costs for PGL Conversion Plants
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #1 ($0.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $1.20/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40 MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c0d120
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #2 ($20.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $1.20/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40/MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c20d120
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #3 ($40.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $1.20/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40/MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c40d120)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #4 ($0.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $2.40/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40/MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c0d240)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #5 ($20.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $2.40/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40/MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c20d240)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #6 ($40.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $2.40/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40/MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c40d240)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #7 ($0.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $1.20/gal Diesel Fuel, $104.80/MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c0d120e2x)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #8 ($40.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $2.40/gal Diesel Fuel, $104.80/MWh Electricity, $5.42/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c40d240e2x)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #9 ($40.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $2.40/gal Diesel Fuel, $104.80/MWh Electricity, $10.84/GJ Natural Gas, $130 per Ton Steel. Case c40d240(egs)2x
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #10 ($20.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $1.20/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40/MWh Electricity, $10.84/GJ Natural Gas, $130 per Ton Steel. Case c20d120(gs)2x)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #11 ($20.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $0.60/gal Diesel Fuel, $26.20/MWh Electricity, $2.71/GJ Natural Gas, $32.50 per Ton Steel. Case c20d060(egs).5x)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis #12 ($20.00 Pre-treatment Expense, Selling Prices of $0.60/gal Diesel Fuel, $52.40/MWh Electricity, $2.71/GJ Natural Gas, $65 per Ton Steel. Case c20d060g.5x)
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