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Vijayaraghavan G., Brown M., Barnes M. Practical grounding, bonding, shielding and surge protection

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Vijayaraghavan G., Brown M., Barnes M. Practical grounding, bonding, shielding and surge protection
Elsevier Science & Technology, 2004. — 237 p. — ISBN 9780750663991, 0750663995.
This book will allow you to gain practical skills and know-how in grounding, bonding, lightning & surge protection. Few topics generate as much controversy and argument as that of grounding and the associated topics of surge protection, shielding and lightning protection of electrical and electronic systems. Poor grounding practice can be the cause of continual and intermittent difficult-to-diagnose problems in a facility. This book looks at these issues from a fresh yet practical perspective and enables you to reduce expensive downtime on your plant and equipment to a minimum by correct application of these principles.
Learning outcomes:
Apply the various methods of grounding electrical systems;
Detail the applicable national Standards;
Describe the purposes of grounding and bonding;
List the types of systems that cannot be grounded;
Describe what systems can be operated ungrounded;
Correctly shield sensitive communications cables from noise and interference;
Apply practical knowledge of surge and transient protection;
Troubleshoot and fix grounding and surge problems;
Design, install and test an effective grounding system for electronic equipment;
Understand lightning and how to minimize its impact on your facility;
Protect sensitive equipment from lightning.
An engineer's guide to earthing, shielding, lightning and surge protection designed to deliver reliable equipment and communications systems that comply with international and national codes;
Discover how to reduce plant downtime and intermittent faults by implementing best-practice grounding/earthing techniques;
Learn the principles of cable shielding in communication networks.
Preface.
Introduction and basics
.
Introduction.
Basics of grounding.
Bonding.
Lightning and its effect on electrical systems.
Static charges and the need for bonding.
Ground electrodes and factors affecting their efficacy.
Noise in signaling circuits and protective measures such as shielding.
Surge protection of electronic equipment.
UPS systems and their role in power quality improvement.
Case studies.
Importance of local codes.
Summary.
Grounding of power supply system neutral.
Introduction.
Ungrounded systems.
Solidly grounded systems.
Impedance grounding using neutral reactor.
Resonant grounding using neutral reactor.
Impedance grounding through neutral resistance.
Point of grounding.
Other challenges.
Summary.
Equipment grounding.
Introduction.
Shock hazard.
Grounding of equipment.
Operation of protective devices.
Thermal capability.
Touch Potential during ground faults.
Induced voltage problem.
Mitigation by multiple ground connection.
Mitigation by reduction of conductor spacing.
EMI suppression.
Metal enclosures for grounding conductors.
Grounding connections for surge protection equipment.
Sensing of ground faults.
Equipotential bonding.
Summary.
Lightning, its effect on buildings and electrical systems and protection against lightning.
Introduction.
Incidence of lightning.
Probability of lightning strike.
Method of lightning protection.
Planning for lightning protection.
Improvements to lightning protection.
Factors governing decision whether or not to protect.
Effect of lightning strike on electrical lines.
Summary.
Static electricity and protection.
Introduction.
What is static electricity?
Generation of charge.
Some common examples of static buildup.
Energy of spark and its ignition capability.
Dangers of static electricity buildup.
Control of static electricity.
Assessment of static risks and planning prevention.
Summary.
Ground electrode system.
Introduction.
Grounding electrodes.
Soil resistance.
Measurement of soil resistivity.
Resistance of a single rod electrode.
Current-carrying capacity of an electrode.
Use of multiple ground rods in parallel.
Measurement of ground resistance of an electrode.
Concrete-encased electrodes.
Corrosion problems in electrical grounding systems.
Maintenance of grounding system.
Chemical electrodes.
Summary.
Surge protection of electronic equipment.
Introduction.
What is a surge?
Bonding of different ground systems as a means of surge proofing.
Surges and surge protection.
Principle of surge protection.
Surge protection of electronic equipment.
Achieving graded surge protection.
Positioning and selection of lightning/surge arrestor.
A practical view of surge protection for sensitive equipment.
Summary.
Electrical noise and mitigation.
Introduction.
Definition of electrical noise and measures for noise reduction.
How are sensitive circuits affected by noise?
Frequency analysis of noise.
Categories of noise.
Disturbances from other equipment in the same distribution system.
Earth loop as a cause of noise.
The ways in which noise can enter a signal cable and its control.
More about shielding.
Shielded isolation transformer.
Avoidance of earth loop.
Use of insulated ground (IG) receptacle.
Zero signal reference grid and signal transport ground plane.
Harmonics in electrical systems.
Summary.
UPS systems and their grounding practices.
Introduction.
Power quality issues.
Definitions of abnormal voltage conditions.
Susceptibility and measures to handle voltage abnormalities.
Regulating transformer.
Standby sources.
Electromechanical UPS systems.
Solid-state UPS systems.
Multiple units for redundancy.
Considerations in selection of UPS systems for ADP facilities.
Grounding issues in static UPS configurations.
UPS configurations and recommended grounding practices.
Summary.
Case studies.
Introduction.
Case study.
Appendixes:
Grounding regulations from various national codes.
IEE system classification based on grounding practices.
IEEE exposure classifications.
Glossary of terms related to grounding.
Steps to ensure effective substation grounding.
Course exercises.
Answer schemes.
Group activities.
Index.
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