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Poinsot T., Veynante D. Theoretical and Numerical Combustion

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Poinsot T., Veynante D. Theoretical and Numerical Combustion
Second Edition. — Erdwards, 2005. — 540 p. — ISBN:1930217102.
Presents basic techniques and recent progress in numerical combustion while establishing important connections with the underlying combustion basics. Fully updated to reflect the latest advances in combustion research. Mirrors evolution of unsteady simulation methods such as LES codes for partially premixed flames and complex geometry burners. Includes extended descriptions of wave equations in reacting flows, physics of combustion instabilities, acoustic/combustion coupling; and a new chapter devoted to LES in real combustors, including comparisons with experimental data
Contents
Preface
Conservation equations for reacting flows
General forms
Choice of primitive variables
Conservation of momentum
Conservation of mass and species
Diffusion velocities: full equations and approximations
Conservation of energy
Usual simplified forms
Constant pressure flames
Equal heat capacities for all species
Constant heat capacity for the mixture only
Summary of conservation equations
Laminar premixed flames
Introduction
Conservation equations and numerical solutions
Steady one-dimensional laminar premixed flames
One-dimensional flame codes
Sensitivity analysis
Theoretical solutions for laminar premixed flames
Derivation of one-step chemistry conservation equations
Thermochemistry and chemical rates
The equivalence of temperature and fuel mass fraction
The reaction rate
Analytical solutions for flame speed
Generalized expression for flame speeds
Single step chemistry limitations and stiffness of reduced schemes ariations of flame speed with temperature and pressure
Premixed flame thicknesses
Simple chemistry
Complex chemistry
Flame stretch
Definition and expressions of stretch
Stretch of stationary flames
Examples of flames with zero stretch
Examples of stretched flames
Flame speeds
Flame speed definitions
Flame speeds of laminar planar unstretched flames
Flame speeds of stretched flames
nstabilities of laminar flame fronts
Laminar diffusion flames
Diffusion flame configurations
Theoretical tools for diffusion flames
Passive scalars and mixture fraction
Flame structure in the z-space
The steady flamelet assumption
Decomposition into mixing and flame structure problems
Models for diffusion flame structures
Flame structure for irreversible infinitely fast chemistry
The Burke-Schumann flame structure
Maximum local flame temperature in a diffusion flame
Maximum flame temperature in diffusion and premixed flames
Maximum and mean temperatures in diffusion burners
Full solutions for irreversible fast chemistry flames
Unsteady unstrained one-dimensional diffusion flame with infinitely fast
chemistry and constant density
Steady strained one-dimensional diffusion flame with infinitely fast chem
stry and constant density
Unsteady strained one-dimensional diffusion flame with infinitely fast
chemistry and constant density
Jet flame in an uniform flow field
Extensions to variable density
Extensions of theory to other flame structures
Reversible equilibrium chemistry
Finite rate chemistry
Summary of flame structures
Extensions to variable Lewis numbers
Real laminar diffusion flames
One-dimensional codes for laminar diffusion flames
Mixture fractions in real flames
Introduction to turbulent combustion
Interaction between flames and turbulence
Elementary descriptions of turbulence
Influence of turbulence on combustion
One-dimensional turbulent premixed flame
Turbulent jet diffusion flame
Computational approaches for turbulent combustion
RANS simulations for turbulent combustion
Averaging the balance equations
Unclosed terms in Favre averaged balance equations
Classical turbulence models for the Reynolds stresses
A first attempt to close mean reaction rates
Physical approaches to model turbulent combustion
A challenge for turbulent combustion modeling: flame flapping and in termittency
Direct numerical simulations
The role of DNS in turbulent combustion studies
Numerical methods for direct simulation
Spatial resolution and physical scales
Large eddy simulations
LES filters
Filtered balance equations
Unresolved fluxes modeling
Simple filtered reaction rate closures
Dynamic modeling in turbulent combustion
Limits of large eddy simulations
Comparing large eddy simulations and experimental data
Chemistry for turbulent combustion
Introduction
Global schemes
Automatic reduction - Tabulated chemistries in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT)
Turbulent premixed flames
Phenomenological description
The effect of turbulence on flame fronts: wrinkling
The effect of flame fronts on turbulence
The infinitely thin flame front limit
Premixed turbulent combustion regimes
A first difficulty: defining u
Classical turbulent premixed combustion diagrams
Modified combustion diagrams
RANS of turbulent premixed flames
Premixed turbulent combustion with single one-step chemistry
The no-model or Arrhenius approach
The Eddy Break Up (EBU) model
Models based on turbulent flame speed correlations
The Bray Moss Libby (BML) model
Flame surface density models
Probability density function (pdf) models
Modeling of turbulent scalar transport terms ρ g uΘ
Modeling of the characteristic turbulent flame time
Kolmogorov-Petrovski-Piskunov (KPP) analysis
Flame stabilization
LES of turbulent premixed flames
Introduction
Extension of RANS models: the LES-EBU model
Artificially thickened flames
G-equation
Flame surface density LES formulations
Scalar fluxes modeling in LES
DNS of turbulent premixed flames
The role of DNS in turbulent combustion studies
DNS database analysis
Studies of local flame structures using DNS
Complex chemistry simulations
Studying the global structure of turbulent flames with DNS
DNS analysis for large eddy simulations
Turbulent non-premixed flames
Introduction
Phenomenological description
Typical flame structure: jet flame
Specific features of turbulent non-premixed flames
Turbulent non-premixed flame stabilization
An example of turbulent non-premixed flame stabilization
Turbulent non-premixed combustion regimes
Flame/vortex interactions in DNS
Scales in turbulent non-premixed combustion
Combustion regimes
RANS of turbulent non-premixed flames
Assumptions and averaged equations
Models for primitive variables with infinitely fast chemistry
Mixture fraction variance and scalar dissipation rate
Models for mean reaction rate with infinitely fast chemistry
Models for primitive variables with finite rate chemistry
Models for mean reaction rate with finite rate chemistry
LES of turbulent non-premixed flames
Linear Eddy Model
Infinitely fast chemistry
Finite rate chemistry
DNS of turbulent non-premixed flames
Studies of local flame structure
Autoignition of a turbulent non-premixed flame
Studies of global flame structure
Three-dimensional turbulent hydrogen jet lifted flame with complex chemistry
Flame/wall interactions
Introduction
Flame–wall interaction in laminar flows
Phenomenological description
Simple chemistry flame/wall interaction
Computing complex chemistry flame/wall interaction
Flame/wall interaction in turbulent flows
Introduction
DNS of turbulent flame/wall interaction
Flame/wall interaction and turbulent combustion models
Flame/wall interaction and wall heat transfer models
Flame/acoustics interactions
Introduction
Acoustics for non-reacting flows
Fundamental equations
Plane waves in one dimension
Harmonic waves and guided waves
Longitudinal modes in constant cross section ducts
Longitudinal modes in variable cross section ducts
Longitudinal/transverse modes in rectangular ducts
Longitudinal modes in a series of constant cross section ducts
The double duct and the Helmholtz resonator
Multidimensional acoustic modes in cavities
Acoustic energy density and flux
Acoustics for reacting flows
An equation for ln(P) in reacting flows
A wave equation in low Mach-number reacting flows
Acoustic velocity and pressure in low-speed reacting flows
Acoustic jump conditions for thin flames
Longitudinal modes in a series of ducts with combustion
Three-dimensional Helmholtz tools
The acoustic energy balance in reacting flows
About energies in reacting flows
Combustion instabilities
Stable versus unstable combustion
nteraction of longitudinal waves and thin flames
The (n − τ ) formulation for flame transfer function
Complete solution in a simplified case
ortices in combustion instabilities
Large eddy simulations of combustion instabilities
ntroduction
LES strategies to study combustion instabilities
Boundary conditions
Introduction
Classification of compressible Navier-Stokes equations formulations
Description of characteristic boundary conditions
Theory
Reacting Navier-Stokes equations near a boundary
The Local One Dimensional Inviscid (LODI) relations
The NSCBC strategy for the Euler equations
The NSCBC strategy for Navier-Stokes equations
Edges and corners
Examples of implementation
A subsonic inflow with fixed velocities and temperature (SI-1)
A subsonic non-reflecting inflow (SI-4)
Subsonic non-reflecting outflows (B2 and B3)
A subsonic reflecting outflow (B4)
An isothermal no-slip wall (NSW)
An adiabatic slip wall (ASW)
Applications to steady non-reacting flows
Applications to steady reacting flows
Unsteady flows and numerical waves control
Physical and numerical waves
ortex/boundary interactions
Applications to low Reynolds number flows
Examples of LES applications
Introduction
Case 1: small scale gas turbine burner
Configuration and boundary conditions
Non reacting flow
Stable reacting flow
Case 2: large-scale gas turbine burner
Configuration
Boundary conditions
Comparison of cold and hot flow structures
A low-frequency forced mode
A high-frequency self-excited mode
Case 3: self-excited laboratory-scale burner
Configuration
Stable flow
Controlling oscillations through boundary conditions
References
Index
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