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Law Chung K. Combustion physics

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Law Chung K. Combustion physics
Cambridge University Press, 2006. - 742 р.
The text consists of three parts: Chapters 1 through 4 cover the basic components required to describe chemically reacting flows, namely thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and transport phenomena; Chapters 5 through 10 cover descriptions of the basic combustion phenomena—those of governing equations, nonpremixed and premixed flames, the limit phenomena of ignition, extinction, and flame stabilization, and the aerodynamics of flames; Chapters 11 through 14 cover combustion in the four major classes of flows, namely turbulent, boundary-layer, two-phase, and supersonic flows
Contents
Preface page
Introduction
Major Areas of Combustion Application
Scientific Disciplines Comprising Combustion
Classifications of Fundamental Combustion Phenomena
Organization of the Text
Literature Sources
Chemical Thermodynamics
Practical Reactants and Stoichiometry
Practical Reactants
Stoichiometry
Chemical Equilibrium
First and Second Laws
Thermodynamic Functions
Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium
Phase Equilibrium
Equilibrium Constants
Equilibrium Constants in the Presence of Condensed Phases
Multiple Reactions
Element Conservation
Restricted Equilibrium
Equilibrium Composition Calculations
Equilibrium Composition of Hydrocarbon–Air Mixtures
The Major–Minor Species Model
Computer Solutions
Energy Conservation
Heats of Formation, Reaction, and Combustion
Estimation of Heat of Reaction from Bond Energies
Determination of Heat of Reaction from K p ( T )
Sensible Energies and Heat Capacities
Energy Conservation in Adiabatic Chemical Systems
Adiabatic Flame Temperature and Equilibrium Composition
Problems
Chemical Kinetics
Phenomenological Law of Reaction Rates
The Law of Mass Action
Reversible Reactions
Multistep Reactions
Steady-State Approximation
Partial Equilibrium Approximation
Approximations by Global and Semiglobal Reactions
Reaction Order and Molecularity
Theories of Reaction Rates: Basic Concepts
The Arrhenius Law
The Activation Energy
Collision Theory of Reaction Rates
Transition State Theory of Reaction Rates
Theories of Reaction Rates: Unimolecular Reactions
Lindemann Theory
Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel (RRK) Theory
Representation of Unimolecular Reaction Rate Constants
Chemically Activated Reactions
Chain Reaction Mechanisms
Straight-Chain Reactions: The Hydrogen–Halogen System
Branched-Chain Reactions
Flame Inhibitors
Experimental and Computational Techniques
Problems
Oxidation Mechanisms of Fuels
Practical Fuels
Oxidation of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide
Explosion Limits of Hydrogen–Oxygen Mixtures
Carbon Monoxide Oxidation
Initiation Reactions in Flames
Oxidation of Methane
General Considerations of Hydrocarbon Oxidation
Methane Autoignition
Methane Flames
Oxidation of C
Hydrocarbons
Oxidation of Alcohols
High-Temperature Oxidation of Higher Aliphatic Fuels
The β -Scission Rule
Oxidation Mechanisms
Oxidation of Aromatics
Hydrocarbon Oxidation at Low to Intermediate Temperatures
Chemistry of Pollutant Formation
Oxides of Nitrogen
Soot Formation
Mechanism Development and Reduction
Postulated Semiglobal Mechanisms
Need for Comprehensiveness and Reduction
Systematic Reduction: The Hydrogen–Oxygen System
Reduction to Skeletal Mechanisms
Linearly Independent Representation
Reduction through QSS Assumption
Theories of Mechanism Reduction
Sensitivity Analysis
Theory of Directed Relation Graph
Theory of Computational Singular Perturbation
Mechanism Validation
Problems
Transport Phenomena
Phenomenological Derivation of Diffusion Coefficients
Derivation
Discussion on Diffusion Coefficients
Characteristic Diffusion Rates and Nondimensional
Numbers
Second-Order Diffusion
Some Useful Results from Kinetic Theory of Gases
General Concepts
Collision Potentials and Integrals
Transport Coefficients
Problems
Conservation Equations
Control Volume Derivation
Conservation of Total Mass
Conservation of Individual Species
Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of Energy
Conservation Relations across an Interface
Governing Equations
Conservation Equations
Constitutive Relations
Auxiliary Relations
Some Useful Approximations
A Simplified Diffusion-Controlled System
Assumptions
Derivation
Conserved Scalar Formulations
Coupling Function Formulation
Local Coupling Function Formulation
Near-Equidiffusion Formulation
Element Conservation Formulation
Mixture Fraction Formulation
Progress Variable Formulation
Reaction-Sheet Formulation
Jump Relations for Coupling Functions
Adiabatic Flame Temperature
Further Development of the Simplified Diffusion-Controlled System
Conservation Equations
Nondimensional Numbers
Nomenclature
Problems
Laminar Nonpremixed Flames
The One-Dimensional Chambered Flame
Coupling Function Formulation
Reaction-Sheet Formulation
Mixture Fraction Formulation
Element Conservation Formulation
The Burke–Schumann Flame
Condensed Fuel Vaporization and the Stefan Flow
Droplet Vaporization and Combustion
Phenomenology d
Law of Droplet Vaporization d
Law of Droplet Combustion
Experimental Results on Single-Component Droplet
Combustion
The Counterflow Flame
Problems
Laminar Premixed Flames
Combustion Waves in Premixtures
Rankine–Hugoniot Relations
Detonation and Deflagration Waves
Chapman–Jouguet Waves
Preliminary Discussion of Detonation Waves
Phenomenological Description of the Standard Flame
Flame Structure
Laminar Burning Flux and Flame Thickness
Mathematical Formulation
Governing Equations
The Cold Boundary Difficulty Approximate Analyses
ntegral Analysis
Frank-Kamenetskii Solution
Asymptotic Analysis
Distinguished Limit
Asymptotic Solution
Dependence of Burning Flux on Flame Temperature
Determination of Laminar Flame Speeds
Bunsen Flame Method
Flat and One-Dimensional Flame Methods
Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame Method
Stagnation Flame Method
Numerical Computation
Profile-Based Determination
Dependence of Laminar Burning Velocities
Dependence on Tad and Le
Dependence on Molecular Structure
Dependence on Pressure
Dependence on Freestream Temperature
Dependence on Transport Properties
Chemical Structure of Flames
Experimental Methods
Detailed Structure
Asymptotic Structure with Reduced Mechanisms
Problems
Limit Phenomena
Phenomenological Considerations of Ignition and Extinction
Quenching Distances and Minimum Ignition Energies
Adiabatic Thermal Explosion
Nonadiabatic Explosion and the Semenov Criterion
The Well-Stirred Reactor Analogy
The S-Curve Concept
gnition by a Hot Surface
Asymptotic Analysis of the Reaction Zone
Ignition of a Confined Mixture by a Flat Plate
Ignition of an Unconfined Mixture by a Flat Plate
Nusselt Number Correlation
Convection-Free Formulation
Ignition of Hydrogen by Heated Air
Global Response to Strain Rate Variations
Second Ignition Limit
First and Third Ignition Limits
Decoupled Environment and Kinetic versus Thermal Feedback
Multiple Criticality and Staged Ignition Premixed Flame Extinction through Volumetric Heat Loss
Phenomenological Derivation
Frank-Kamenetskii Solution
Flammability Limits
Empirical Limits
Fundamental Limits
Flame Stabilization and Blowoff
The Flat-Burner Flame
Stabilization of Premixed Flame at Burner Rim
Stabilization of Nonpremixed Flame at Burner Rim
Stabilization of Lifted Flames
Problems
Asymptotic Structure of Flames
Structure of Premixed Flames
Structure Equation
Delta Function Closure and Jump Relations
Reduction to Canonical Form
Structure of Nonpremixed Flames: Classification
Classification of Flow Types
Classification of Flame Regimes
Parametric Boundaries of Flame Regimes
Structure of Nonpremixed Flames: Analysis
Nearly Frozen Regime
al Burning Regime
Premixed Flame Regime
Near-Equilibrium Regime
Mixture Fraction Formulation for Near-Equilibrium Regime
Problems
Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames
General Concepts
Hydrodynamic Stretch
The G-Equation
Corner Formation in Landau Propagation
Burning Rate Increase through Flame Wrinkling
The Stretch Rate
Flame Stretch: Phenomenology
Effects of Flow Straining: The Stagnation Flame
Effects of Flame Curvature: The Bunsen Flame
Effects of Flame Motion: The Unsteady Spherical Flame
Effects of Heat Loss
Flame Stretch: Analyses
Effects of Flame Stretch
Effects of Pure Curvature
Combined Solution
Asymptotic Analysis of the Counterflow Flame Experimental and Computational Results
Equidiffusive Flames
Nonequidiffusive Flames
Further Implications of Stretched Flame Phenomena
Determination of Laminar Flame Parameters
Dual Extinction States and Extended Flammability Limits
Other Phenomena
Simultaneous Consideration of Hydrodynamic and Flame Stretch
Curvature-Induced Corner Broadening
Inversion and Tip Opening of Bunsen Flames
Unsteady Dynamics
Flamefront Instabilities
Mechanisms of Cellular Instabilities
Analysis of Cellular Instabilities
Mechanisms of Pulsating Instabilities
Effects of Heat Loss and Aerodynamic Straining
Problems
Combustion in Turbulent Flows
General Concepts
Origin and Structure
Probabilistic Description
Turbulence Scales
Simulation and Modeling
Direct Numerical Simulation
Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Models
Large Eddy Simulation
Probability Density Functions
Closure of the Reaction Rate Term
Premixed Turbulent Combustion
Regimes of Combustion Modes
Turbulent Burning Velocities
Flamelet Modeling
Nonpremixed Turbulent Combustion
Regimes of Combustion Modes
Mixture Fraction Modeling
Problems
Combustion in Boundary-Layer Flows
Considerations of Steady Two-Dimensional Boundary-Layer Flows
Governing Equations
Transformation to Boundary-Layer Variables
Discussion on Similarity
Nonpremixed Burning of an Ablating Surface
gnition of a Premixed Combustible
gnition at the Stagnation Point
gnition along a Flat Plate Ignition in the Mixing Layer
Flame Stabilization and Blowoff in High-Speed Flows
Jet Flows
Similarity Solution
Height of Nonpremixed Jet Flames
Stabilization and Blowout of Lifted Flames
Supersonic Boundary-Layer Flows
Nonpremixed Burning of an Ablating Surface
Ignition along a Flat Plate
Natural Convection Boundary-Layer Flows
Problems
Combustion in Two-Phase Flows
General Considerations of Droplet Combustion
Phenomenology
Experimental Considerations
Single-Component Droplet Combustion
Droplet Heating
Fuel Vapor Accumulation
Variable Property Effects
Gas-Phase Transient Diffusion and High-Pressure Combustion
Convection Effects and Droplet Dynamics
Droplet Interaction
Dynamics of Droplet Collision
Ignition and Extinction Criteria
Multicomponent Droplet Combustion
Miscible Mixtures
Microexplosion Phenomenon
Emulsions and Slurries
Alcohols and Reactive Liquid Propellants
Carbon Particle Combustion
Phenomenology
Global Kinetics of Carbon Oxidation
Analysis
Limiting Solutions
Metal Particle Combustion
Phenomenology of Spray Combustion
One-Dimensional, Planar, Spray Flames
Spray Jet Flames
Cloud and Dense Spray Combustion
Formulation of Spray Combustion
Spray Statistics
Conservation Equations
Adiabatic Spray Vaporization
Heterogeneous Laminar Flames
Gas-Phase Flames
Condensed-Phase Flames
Problems
Combustion in Supersonic Flows
Frozen and Equilibrium Flows
Governing Equations for Nondiffusive Flows
Entropy Production
Speed of Sound
Acoustic Equations
Dynamics of Weakly Perturbed Flows
One-Dimensional Propagation of Acoustic Waves
Uniform Flow over Slender Bodies
Steady, Quasi-One-Dimensional Flows
Nonlinear Flows
Linearized Nozzle Flows
Method of Characteristics
General Procedure for Two Independent Variables
Unsteady, One-Dimensional, Frozen, Isentropic Flows
Steady Two-Dimensional Flows
Steady One-Dimensional Detonations
Chapman–Jouguet Detonations
Overdriven Detonations
Taylor Expansion Waves
ZND Structure of Detonation Waves
Eigenvalue Structure of Quasi-One-Dimensional Detonations
Unsteady Three-Dimensional Detonations
Pulsating Instability of the ZND Structure
Triple-Shock Structure
Triple-Shock Interactions
The Complex Structure
Propagation of Strong Blast Waves
Direct Detonation Initiation
The Zel’dovich Criterion
Curvature-Induced Quenching Limit
Curvature-Affected Initiation Limit
Indirect Detonation Initiation
Synchronized Initiation
Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition
Problems
References
Author Index
Subject Index
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