Cambridge University Press, 2006. - 742 р.The text consists of three parts: Chapters 1 through 4 cover the basic components required to describe chemically reacting flows, namely thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and transport phenomena; Chapters 5 through 10 cover descriptions of the basic combustion phenomena—those of governing equations, nonpremixed and premixed flames, the limit phenomena of ignition, extinction, and flame stabilization, and the aerodynamics of flames; Chapters 11 through 14 cover combustion in the four major classes of flows, namely turbulent, boundary-layer, two-phase, and supersonic flowsContents Preface page Introduction Major Areas of Combustion Application Scientific Disciplines Comprising Combustion Classifications of Fundamental Combustion Phenomena Organization of the Text Literature Sources Chemical Thermodynamics Practical Reactants and Stoichiometry Practical Reactants Stoichiometry Chemical Equilibrium First and Second Laws Thermodynamic Functions Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium Phase Equilibrium Equilibrium Constants Equilibrium Constants in the Presence of Condensed Phases Multiple Reactions Element Conservation Restricted Equilibrium Equilibrium Composition Calculations Equilibrium Composition of Hydrocarbon–Air Mixtures The Major–Minor Species Model Computer Solutions Energy Conservation Heats of Formation, Reaction, and Combustion Estimation of Heat of Reaction from Bond Energies Determination of Heat of Reaction from K p ( T ) Sensible Energies and Heat Capacities Energy Conservation in Adiabatic Chemical Systems Adiabatic Flame Temperature and Equilibrium Composition Problems Chemical Kinetics Phenomenological Law of Reaction Rates The Law of Mass Action Reversible Reactions Multistep Reactions Steady-State Approximation Partial Equilibrium Approximation Approximations by Global and Semiglobal Reactions Reaction Order and Molecularity Theories of Reaction Rates: Basic Concepts The Arrhenius Law The Activation Energy Collision Theory of Reaction Rates Transition State Theory of Reaction Rates Theories of Reaction Rates: Unimolecular Reactions Lindemann Theory Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel (RRK) Theory Representation of Unimolecular Reaction Rate Constants Chemically Activated Reactions Chain Reaction Mechanisms Straight-Chain Reactions: The Hydrogen–Halogen System Branched-Chain Reactions Flame Inhibitors Experimental and Computational Techniques Problems Oxidation Mechanisms of Fuels Practical Fuels Oxidation of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide Explosion Limits of Hydrogen–Oxygen Mixtures Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Initiation Reactions in Flames Oxidation of Methane General Considerations of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Methane Autoignition Methane Flames Oxidation of C Hydrocarbons Oxidation of Alcohols High-Temperature Oxidation of Higher Aliphatic Fuels The β -Scission Rule Oxidation Mechanisms Oxidation of Aromatics Hydrocarbon Oxidation at Low to Intermediate Temperatures Chemistry of Pollutant Formation Oxides of Nitrogen Soot Formation Mechanism Development and Reduction Postulated Semiglobal Mechanisms Need for Comprehensiveness and Reduction Systematic Reduction: The Hydrogen–Oxygen System Reduction to Skeletal Mechanisms Linearly Independent Representation Reduction through QSS Assumption Theories of Mechanism Reduction Sensitivity Analysis Theory of Directed Relation Graph Theory of Computational Singular Perturbation Mechanism Validation Problems Transport Phenomena Phenomenological Derivation of Diffusion Coefficients Derivation Discussion on Diffusion Coefficients Characteristic Diffusion Rates and Nondimensional Numbers Second-Order Diffusion Some Useful Results from Kinetic Theory of Gases General Concepts Collision Potentials and Integrals Transport Coefficients Problems Conservation Equations Control Volume Derivation Conservation of Total Mass Conservation of Individual Species Conservation of Momentum Conservation of Energy Conservation Relations across an Interface Governing Equations Conservation Equations Constitutive Relations Auxiliary Relations Some Useful Approximations A Simplified Diffusion-Controlled System Assumptions Derivation Conserved Scalar Formulations Coupling Function Formulation Local Coupling Function Formulation Near-Equidiffusion Formulation Element Conservation Formulation Mixture Fraction Formulation Progress Variable Formulation Reaction-Sheet Formulation Jump Relations for Coupling Functions Adiabatic Flame Temperature Further Development of the Simplified Diffusion-Controlled System Conservation Equations Nondimensional Numbers Nomenclature Problems Laminar Nonpremixed Flames The One-Dimensional Chambered Flame Coupling Function Formulation Reaction-Sheet Formulation Mixture Fraction Formulation Element Conservation Formulation The Burke–Schumann Flame Condensed Fuel Vaporization and the Stefan Flow Droplet Vaporization and Combustion Phenomenology d Law of Droplet Vaporization d Law of Droplet Combustion Experimental Results on Single-Component Droplet Combustion The Counterflow Flame Problems Laminar Premixed Flames Combustion Waves in Premixtures Rankine–Hugoniot Relations Detonation and Deflagration Waves Chapman–Jouguet Waves Preliminary Discussion of Detonation Waves Phenomenological Description of the Standard Flame Flame Structure Laminar Burning Flux and Flame Thickness Mathematical Formulation Governing Equations The Cold Boundary Difficulty Approximate Analyses ntegral Analysis Frank-Kamenetskii Solution Asymptotic Analysis Distinguished Limit Asymptotic Solution Dependence of Burning Flux on Flame Temperature Determination of Laminar Flame Speeds Bunsen Flame Method Flat and One-Dimensional Flame Methods Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame Method Stagnation Flame Method Numerical Computation Profile-Based Determination Dependence of Laminar Burning Velocities Dependence on Tad and Le Dependence on Molecular Structure Dependence on Pressure Dependence on Freestream Temperature Dependence on Transport Properties Chemical Structure of Flames Experimental Methods Detailed Structure Asymptotic Structure with Reduced Mechanisms Problems Limit Phenomena Phenomenological Considerations of Ignition and Extinction Quenching Distances and Minimum Ignition Energies Adiabatic Thermal Explosion Nonadiabatic Explosion and the Semenov Criterion The Well-Stirred Reactor Analogy The S-Curve Concept gnition by a Hot Surface Asymptotic Analysis of the Reaction Zone Ignition of a Confined Mixture by a Flat Plate Ignition of an Unconfined Mixture by a Flat Plate Nusselt Number Correlation Convection-Free Formulation Ignition of Hydrogen by Heated Air Global Response to Strain Rate Variations Second Ignition Limit First and Third Ignition Limits Decoupled Environment and Kinetic versus Thermal Feedback Multiple Criticality and Staged Ignition Premixed Flame Extinction through Volumetric Heat Loss Phenomenological Derivation Frank-Kamenetskii Solution Flammability Limits Empirical Limits Fundamental Limits Flame Stabilization and Blowoff The Flat-Burner Flame Stabilization of Premixed Flame at Burner Rim Stabilization of Nonpremixed Flame at Burner Rim Stabilization of Lifted Flames Problems Asymptotic Structure of Flames Structure of Premixed Flames Structure Equation Delta Function Closure and Jump Relations Reduction to Canonical Form Structure of Nonpremixed Flames: Classification Classification of Flow Types Classification of Flame Regimes Parametric Boundaries of Flame Regimes Structure of Nonpremixed Flames: Analysis Nearly Frozen Regime al Burning Regime Premixed Flame Regime Near-Equilibrium Regime Mixture Fraction Formulation for Near-Equilibrium Regime Problems Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames General Concepts Hydrodynamic Stretch The G-Equation Corner Formation in Landau Propagation Burning Rate Increase through Flame Wrinkling The Stretch Rate Flame Stretch: Phenomenology Effects of Flow Straining: The Stagnation Flame Effects of Flame Curvature: The Bunsen Flame Effects of Flame Motion: The Unsteady Spherical Flame Effects of Heat Loss Flame Stretch: Analyses Effects of Flame Stretch Effects of Pure Curvature Combined Solution Asymptotic Analysis of the Counterflow Flame Experimental and Computational Results Equidiffusive Flames Nonequidiffusive Flames Further Implications of Stretched Flame Phenomena Determination of Laminar Flame Parameters Dual Extinction States and Extended Flammability Limits Other Phenomena Simultaneous Consideration of Hydrodynamic and Flame Stretch Curvature-Induced Corner Broadening Inversion and Tip Opening of Bunsen Flames Unsteady Dynamics Flamefront Instabilities Mechanisms of Cellular Instabilities Analysis of Cellular Instabilities Mechanisms of Pulsating Instabilities Effects of Heat Loss and Aerodynamic Straining Problems Combustion in Turbulent Flows General Concepts Origin and Structure Probabilistic Description Turbulence Scales Simulation and Modeling Direct Numerical Simulation Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Models Large Eddy Simulation Probability Density Functions Closure of the Reaction Rate Term Premixed Turbulent Combustion Regimes of Combustion Modes Turbulent Burning Velocities Flamelet Modeling Nonpremixed Turbulent Combustion Regimes of Combustion Modes Mixture Fraction Modeling Problems Combustion in Boundary-Layer Flows Considerations of Steady Two-Dimensional Boundary-Layer Flows Governing Equations Transformation to Boundary-Layer Variables Discussion on Similarity Nonpremixed Burning of an Ablating Surface gnition of a Premixed Combustible gnition at the Stagnation Point gnition along a Flat Plate Ignition in the Mixing Layer Flame Stabilization and Blowoff in High-Speed Flows Jet Flows Similarity Solution Height of Nonpremixed Jet Flames Stabilization and Blowout of Lifted Flames Supersonic Boundary-Layer Flows Nonpremixed Burning of an Ablating Surface Ignition along a Flat Plate Natural Convection Boundary-Layer Flows Problems Combustion in Two-Phase Flows General Considerations of Droplet Combustion Phenomenology Experimental Considerations Single-Component Droplet Combustion Droplet Heating Fuel Vapor Accumulation Variable Property Effects Gas-Phase Transient Diffusion and High-Pressure Combustion Convection Effects and Droplet Dynamics Droplet Interaction Dynamics of Droplet Collision Ignition and Extinction Criteria Multicomponent Droplet Combustion Miscible Mixtures Microexplosion Phenomenon Emulsions and Slurries Alcohols and Reactive Liquid Propellants Carbon Particle Combustion Phenomenology Global Kinetics of Carbon Oxidation Analysis Limiting Solutions Metal Particle Combustion Phenomenology of Spray Combustion One-Dimensional, Planar, Spray Flames Spray Jet Flames Cloud and Dense Spray Combustion Formulation of Spray Combustion Spray Statistics Conservation Equations Adiabatic Spray Vaporization Heterogeneous Laminar Flames Gas-Phase Flames Condensed-Phase Flames Problems Combustion in Supersonic Flows Frozen and Equilibrium Flows Governing Equations for Nondiffusive Flows Entropy Production Speed of Sound Acoustic Equations Dynamics of Weakly Perturbed Flows One-Dimensional Propagation of Acoustic Waves Uniform Flow over Slender Bodies Steady, Quasi-One-Dimensional Flows Nonlinear Flows Linearized Nozzle Flows Method of Characteristics General Procedure for Two Independent Variables Unsteady, One-Dimensional, Frozen, Isentropic Flows Steady Two-Dimensional Flows Steady One-Dimensional Detonations Chapman–Jouguet Detonations Overdriven Detonations Taylor Expansion Waves ZND Structure of Detonation Waves Eigenvalue Structure of Quasi-One-Dimensional Detonations Unsteady Three-Dimensional Detonations Pulsating Instability of the ZND Structure Triple-Shock Structure Triple-Shock Interactions The Complex Structure Propagation of Strong Blast Waves Direct Detonation Initiation The Zel’dovich Criterion Curvature-Induced Quenching Limit Curvature-Affected Initiation Limit Indirect Detonation Initiation Synchronized Initiation Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition Problems References Author Index Subject Index
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