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Zobaa A.F., Bansal R.C. Handbook of Renewable Energy Technology

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Zobaa A.F., Bansal R.C. Handbook of Renewable Energy Technology
World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011. 851 p. ISBN-13:978-981-4289-06-1, ISBN-10:981-4289-06-X
Effects of environmental, economic, social, political and technical factors have led to the rapid deployment of various sources of renewable energy-based power generation. The incorporation of these generation technologies have led to the development of a broad array of new methods and tools to integrate this new form of generation into the power system network. This book, arranged into six sections, highlights various renewable energy based generation technologies, and consists a series of papers written by experts in their respective fields of specialization
The Handbook of Renewable Energy Technology will be of great practical benefit to professionals, scientists and researchers in the relevant industries, and will be of interest to those of the general public wanting to know more about renewable energy technologies
Contents
Preface
About the Editors
Wind Energy and Their Applications
Wind Energy Resources: Theory, Design and Applications
Fang Yao, Ramesh C. Bansal, Zhao Yang Dong, Ram K. Saket and Jitendra S. Shakya
Introduction
PowerintheWind
Wind Turbine Design Considerations
Grid Connected Wind Farms
Hybrid Power Systems
Economics of Wind Power Systems
Conclusion
References
Wind Turbine Systems: History, Structure, and Dynamic Model
S. Masoud Barakati
Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS)
Overall Dynamic Model of the Wind Turbine System and Small Signal Analysis
References
Wind Turbine Generation Systems Modeling for Integration in Power Systems
Adri`a Junyent-Ferr´e and Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt
Introduction
Wind Turbine Modeling
Wind Modeling
Mechanical Transmission Modeling
Electrical Generator Modeling
Converter Modeling
Control Modeling
Electrical Disturbances
Conclusions
References
Technologies and Methods used in Wind Resource Assessment
Ravita D. Prasad and Ramesh C. Bansal
Introduction
Literature Review, Methods and Software used in WRA
Wind Characteristics for Site
To Find the Optimum Wind Turbine which Yields High Energy at High Capacity Factor
Uncertainties Involved in Predicting Wind Speeds using the Different Approaches of WRA 4.6 Concluding Remarks
References
Economic Analysis of Wind Systems
Ravita D. Prasad and Ramesh C. Bansal
Introduction
Wind System Economic Components
Economic Analysis Methods
Case Study for the Economic Analysis of a Wind Turbine
Conclusions
References
Line Side Converters in Wind Power Applications
Ana Vladan Stankovic and Dejan Schreiber
ntroduction
Line Side Converters
Principle of Operation
Control of a Line-Side Converter under Balanced Operating Conditions
Line Side Converters under Unbalanced Operating Conditions
Analysis of the PWM Converter under Unbalanced Operating Conditions
Control Method for Input-Output Harmonic Elimination of the PWM Converter under Unbalanced Operating Conditions
Examples
Concluding Remarks
References
Wake Effects from Wind Turbines on Overhead Lines
Brian Wareing
Introduction
Literature Survey and Review of any Modeling or Field TestWork
Effect of Wind Speed and Turbulence on Overhead Lines
Cenelec Standards
Wind Tunnel Results
Comparison with Other Data
Effect of Multiple Turbines on the OHL
Solutions
Summary
References
Solar Energy Systems
Solar Energy Calculations
Keith E. Holbert and Devarajan Srinivasan
Introduction
Earth’s Orbit
Solar Constant and Solar Spectra
Solar Angles Collector Angles
Solar Irradiance
Comparison to Measured Data
Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
Concluding Remarks
References
Photovoltaic Systems
Ravita D. Prasad and Ramesh C. Bansal
Introduction
PV Modules
Types of PV Systems
Concluding Remarks
References
Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants
Keith E. Holbert
Introduction
Solar Thermal Systems
Concentrating Solar Power Systems
Low Temperature Solar Thermal Approaches
Environmental Impact
Concluding Remarks
References
Maximum Power Point Tracking Charge Controllers
Ashish Pandey, Nivedita Thakur and Ashok Kumar Mukerjee
Solar Battery Charging
Various Sources of Losses
Charge Control in Battery Backed PV Systems
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
Advance Issues and Algorithms
Conclusion
Further Readings
References
Non-grid Solar Thermal Technologies
Mahendra S. Seveda, Narendra S. Rathore and Vinod Kumar
Introduction
Solar Collectors
Solar Drying
Solar Cooking
Solar Water Heating
Solar Distillation
Solar Heating of Buildings
Conclusions
References
Solar Tunnel Dryer — A Promising Option for Solar Drying
Mahendra S. Seveda, Narendra S. Rathore and Vinod Kumar
Introduction
Principle of Drying
Open Sun Drying
Types of Solar Dryers
Factors Affecting Solar Drying
Selection of Solar Dryers
Solar Tunnel Dryer
Case Studies on Solar Tunnel Dryer for Drying Agricultural Product (Embilica Officinalis Pulp)
Case Studies on Solar Tunnel Dryer for Drying Industrial Product
(Di-basic Calcium Phosphate)
Conclusions
References
Bio Fuels
Biomass as a Source of Energy
Mahendra S. Seveda, Narendra S. Rathore and Vinod Kumar
Introduction
Types of Biomass
Energy Content of Biomass
Harvesting Methods of Biomass
Conversion of Biomass
Thermo-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Biodiesel Production
Bioethanol Production Conclusions
References
Forest Biomass Production
Severiano P´erez, Carlos J. Renedo, Alfredo Ortiz, Mario Ma˜nana and Carlos Tejedor
Introduction
Bioclimatic Potential
Forest Species
Evaluation of Forest Biomass
Collection Systems for Forest Biomass
Environmental Impact Resulting from the Generation and
Exploitation of Forest Biomass
Conclusions
References
Bioethanol
Alfredo Ortiz, Severiano P´erez, Carlos J. Renedo, Mario Ma˜nana and Fernando Delgado
Technical Fundamentals
Level of Development
Strengths and Weaknesses
Environmental Impact
Economics
Combination with Conventional Sources
Conclusions
References
Biodiesel
Carlos J. Renedo, Alfredo Ortiz, Severiano P´erez, Mario Ma˜nana and Inmaculada Fern´andez
Technical Fundamentals
Level of Development
Strengths and Weaknesses
Environmental Impact
Economics
Combination with Conventional Sources
Conclusions
References
Ocean and Small Hydro Energy Systems
Technologies and Methods used in Marine Energy and Farm System Model
Patel Kiranben and M. Patel Suvin
Introduction
Marine Energy: How Much Development Potential is There?
Understanding the Power of Marine Energy
Global Development of Marine Energy
Possible Impacts
Ocean Wave Energy
Ocean Tide Energy
Mathematical Modeling of Tidal Schemes
Global Environmental Impact
Operating Tidal Power Schemes
Conclusions
References
Operational Challenges of Low Power Hydro Plants
Arulampalam Atputharajah
Introduction
Low Power Hydro Plants
Micro Hydro Plants
Concluding Remarks
References
Frequency Control in Isolated Small Hydro Power Plant
Suryanarayana Doolla
Introduction
Mathematical Modeling of an Isolated SHP Plant
Frequency Control using On/Off Control Valve with Reduced
Size of Dump Load
Frequency Control using Servo Motor Along with On/Off Control Valve
Conclusions
References
Simulation Tools, Distributed Generation and Grid Integration
Simulation Tools for Feasibility Studies of Renewable Energy Sources
Juan A. Martinez-Velasco and Jacinto Martin-Arnedo
Introduction
Modeling for Feasibility Studies
Economic Modeling
Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction
Simulation Tools
Application Examples
Discussion
References
Distributed Generation: A Power System Perspective
Hitesh D. Mathur, Nguyen Cong Hien, Nadarajah Mithulananthan, Dheeraj Joshi and Ramesh C. Bansal
Introduction
Distributed Generation Systems
Impact of Distributed Generation on Electrical Power System
Conclusions
References
DG Allocation in Primary Distribution Systems Considering Loss Reduction
Duong Quoc Hung and Nadarajah Mithulananthan
Introduction
Distributed Generation
Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems
Loss Reduction Using DG
Numerical Results
Conclusions
References
Renewable-Based Generation Integration in Electricity Markets with Virtual Power Producers
Zita A. Vale, Hugo Morais and Hussein Khodr
ntroduction
Electricity Markets and DG
Virtual Power Producers (VPP)
PP and Electricity Market Simulation
Conclusions and Future Perspectives
References
Induction Generators, Power Quality, Power Electronics and Energy Planning for Renewable Energy Systems
Modern Power Electronic Technology for the Integration of Renewable Energy Sources
Vinod Kumar, Ramesh C. Bansal, Raghuveer R. Joshi, Rajendrasinh B. Jadeja and Uday P. Mhaskar
Introduction
Various Topologies of Power Electronic Converters
Current Wind Power Technology
Future Trends in Wind-Power Technology
Grid-Interconnection Requirements for Wind Farms: Overview
Power Electronics in Photovoltaic (PV) System
Recent Trends in Energy-Storage Technologies
Conclusions
References
Analysis of Induction Generators for Renewable Energy Applications
Kanwarjit S. Sandhu
ntroduction
Equivalent Circuit Model of Induction Machine
Slip in Terms of Per Unit Frequency and Speed
Grid Connected Induction Generator
Self-Excited Induction Generators [SEIG]
Conclusions
Appendix
References
Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generators under Balanced and Unbalanced Voltage Conditions
Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt and Adri`a Junyent-Ferr´e
Introduction
Nomenclature
General Considerations
Control of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator under Balanced Conditions
Control of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator under Unbalanced Conditions
Simulation Results
Conclusions
References
Power Quality Instrumentation and Measurement in a Distributed and Renewable Environment
Mario Manana, Alfredo Ortiz, Carlos J. Renedo, Severiano Perez and Alberto Arroyo
Introduction
Regulatory Framework
State-of-the-art
Instrumentation Architecture
PQ Monitoring Surveys in Distributed and Renewable Environments
Summary
References
Energy Resource Allocation in Energy Planning
Sandip Deshmukh
Introduction to Energy Planning Process
Energy Requirement and Energy Resource Estimations
Energy Resource Allocation
Region Dependent Development in Energy Planning
Conclusions
References
Index
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