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Sauermann J., Thelen M. Realtime Operating Systems for Embedded Systems. Concepts and Implementation of Microkernels for Embedded Systems

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Sauermann J., Thelen M. Realtime Operating Systems for Embedded Systems. Concepts and Implementation of Microkernels for Embedded Systems
1995. — 212 p.
Every year, millions of microprocessor and microcontroller chips are sold as CPUs for general purpose computers, such as PCs or workstations, but also for devices that are not primarily used as computers, such as printers, TV sets, SCSI controllers, cameras, and even coffee machines. Such devices are commonly called embedded systems. Surprisingly, the number of chips used for embedded systems exceeds by far the number of chips used for general purpose computers.
Both general purpose computers and embedded systems (except for the very simple ones) require an operating system. Most general purpose computers (except mainframes) use either UNIX, Windows, or DOS. For these operating systems, literature abounds. In contrast, literature on operating systems of embedded systems is scarce, although many different operating systems for embedded systems are available. One reason for this great variety of operating systems might be that writing an operating system is quite a challenge for a system designer. But what is more, individually designed systems can be extended in exactly the way required, and the developer does not depend on a commercial microkernel and its flaws.
The microkernel presented in this book may not be any better than others, but at least you will get to know how it works and how you can modify it. Apart from that, this microkernel has been used in practice, so it has reached a certain level of maturity and stability. You will learn about the basic ideas behind this microkernel, and you are provided with the complete source code that you can use for your own extensions.
General Requirements.
Memory Requirements.
Specification and Execution of Programs.
Compiling and Linking.
Loading and Execution of Programs.
Preemptive Multitasking.
Duplication of Hardware.
Task Switch.
Task Control Blocks.
Ring Buffers.
Ring Buffer with Get Semaphore.
Ring Buffer with Put Semaphore.
Ring Buffer with Get and Put Semaphores.
Kernel Implementation.
Kernel Architecture.
Hardware Model.
Memory Map.
Interrupt Assignment.
Data Bus Usage.
Task Switching.
Semaphore Constructors.
Semaphore Destructor.
Semaphore P().
Semaphore Poll().
Semaphore V().
Ring Buffer Constructor and Destructor.
RingBuffer Member Functions.
Queue Put and Get Functions.
Queue Put and Get Without Disabling Interrupts.
nterprocess Communication.
Serial Input and Output.
Channel Numbers.
SerialIn and SerialOut Classes and Constructors/Destructors.
Public SerialOut Member Functions.
Public SerialIn Member Functions.
Interrupt Processing.
Hardware Initialization.
Interrupt Service Routine.
Memory Management.
Miscellaneous Functions.
Miscellaneous Functions in Task.cc.
Miscellaneous Functions in os.cc.
System Start-up.
Task Start-up.
Task Parameters.
Task Creation.
Task Activation.
Task Deletion.
An Application.
Using the Monitor.
A Monitor Session.
Monitor Implementation.
Development Environment.
Scenario 1: UNIX or Linux Host.
Scenario 2: DOS Host.
Scenario 3: Other Host or Scenarios 1 and 2 Failed.
Building the Cross-Environment.
Building the GNU cross-binutils package.
Building the GNU cross-gcc package.
The libgcc.a library.
The Target Environment.
The Target Makefile.
The skip_aout Utility.
Porting to different Processors.
Porting to MC68000 or MC68008 Processors.
Porting to Other Processor families.
Saving Registers in Interrupt Service Routines.
Semaphores with time-out.
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