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Cambridge University Press. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK. 2010. — 569 с.How did the Solar System's chemical composition evolve? This textbook provides the answers in the first interdisciplinary introduction to cosmochemistry. It makes this exciting and evolving field accessible to undergraduate and graduate students from a range of backgrounds, including geology, chemistry, astronomy and physics. The authors - two established leaders who have pioneered developments in the field - provide a complete background to cosmochemical processes and discoveries, enabling students outside geochemistry to understand and explore the Solar System's composition. Topics covered include: - synthesis of nuclides in stars - partitioning of elements between solids, liquids and gas in the solar nebula - overviews of the chemistry of extraterrestrial materials - isotopic tools used to investigate processes such as planet accretion and element fractionation - chronology of the early Solar System - geochemical exploration of planets Boxes provide basic definitions and mini-courses in mineralogy, organic chemistry, and other essential background information for students. Review questions and additional reading for each chapter encourage students to explore cosmochemistry further. ==================================================================== Космохимия, наука о химическом составе космических тел, законах распространённости и распределения химических элементов во Вселенной, процессах сочетания и миграции атомов при образовании космического вещества. Космохимия исследует преимущественно "холодные" процессы на уровне взаимодействий веществ, в то время как "горячими" ядерными процессами в космосе — плазменным состоянием вещества, нуклеогенезом (процессом образования элементов) внутри звезд и др. — в основном занимается физика.ContentsPrefaceIntroduction to cosmochemistryOverview What is cosmochemistry? Geochemistry versus cosmochemistry Beginnings of cosmochemistry (and geochemistry) Philosophical foundations Meteorites and microscopy Spectroscopy and the compositions of stars Solar system element abundances Isotopes and nuclear physics Space exploration and samples from other worlds New sources of extraterrestrial materials Organic matter and extraterrestrial life? The tools and datasets of cosmochemistry Laboratory and spacecraft analyses Cosmochemical theory Relationship of cosmochemistry to other disciplines Questions Suggestions for further reading References
Nuclides and elements: the building blocks of matterOverview Elementary particles, isotopes, and elements Chart of the nuclides: organizing elements by their nuclear properties Radioactive elements and their modes of decay The periodic table: organizing elements by their chemistry properties Chemical bonding Chemical and physical processes relevant to cosmochemistry Isotope effects from chemical and physical processes Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesOrigin of the elementsOverview In the beginning The Big Bang model Observational evidence Nucleosynthesis in stars Classification, masses, and lifetimes of stars The life cycles of stars Stellar nucleosynthesis processes Origin of the galaxy and galactic chemical evolution Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesSolar system and cosmic abundances: elements and isotopesOverview Chemistry on a grand scale Historical perspective How are solar system abundances determined? Determining elemental abundances in the Sun Spectroscopic observations of the Sun Collecting and analyzing the solar wind Determining chemical abundances in meteorites Importance of CI chondrites Measuring CI abundances Indirect methods of estimating abundances Solar system abundances of the elements Solar system abundances of the isotopes How did solar system abundances arise? Differences between solar system and cosmic abundances How are solar system abundances used in cosmochemistry? Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesPresolar grains: a record of stellar nucleosynthesis and processes in interstellar spaceOverview Grains that predate the solar system A cosmochemical detective story Recognizing presolar grains in meteorites Known types of presolar grains Identification and characterization of presolar grains Locating and identifying presolar grains Characterization of presolar grains Identification of stellar sources Grains from AGB stars Supernova grains Nova grains Other stellar sources Presolar grains as probes of stellar nucleosynthesis Input data for stellar models Internal stellar structure The neutron source(s) for the s-process Constraining supernova models Galactic chemical evolution Presolar grains as tracers of circumstellar and interstellar environments Silicon carbide Graphite grains from AGB stars Graphite grains from supernovae Interstellar grains Presolar grains as probes of the early solar system Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesMeteorites: a record of nebular and planetary processesOverview Primitive versus differentiated Components of chondrites Chondrules Refractory inclusions Metals and sulfide Matrix Chondrite classification Primary characteristics: chemical compositions Secondary characteristics: petrologic types Chondrite taxonomy Other classification parameters: shock and weathering Oxygen isotopes in chondrites Classification of nonchondritic meteorites Primitive achondrites Acapulcoites and lodranites Ureilites Winonaites and IAB silicate inclusions Magmatic achondrites Aubrites Howardites–eucrites–diogenites Angrites Irons and stony irons Classification and composition of iron meteorites Pallasites and mesosiderites Lunar samples Martian meteorites Oxygen isotopes in differentiated meteorites Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesCosmochemical and geochemical fractionationsOverview What are chemical fractionations and why are they important? Condensation as a fractionation process Condensation sequences Applicability of condensation calculations to the early solar system Volatile element depletions Gas–solid interactions Gas–liquid interactions Igneous fractionations Magmatic processes that lead to fractionation Element partitioning Physical fractionations Sorting of chondrite components Fractionations by impacts or pyroclastic activity Element fractionation resulting from oxidation/reduction Element fractionation resulting from planetary differentiation Fractionation of isotopes Mass-dependent fractionation Fractionations produced by ion–molecule reactions Planetary mass-dependent fractionations Mass-independent fractionation Radiogenic isotope fractionation and planetary differentiation Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesRadioisotopes as chronometersOverview Methods of age determination Discussing radiometric ages and time Basic principles of radiometric age dating Long-lived radionuclides The 40K–40Ar system The 87Rb–87Sr system The 147Sm–143Nd system The U–Th–Pb system The 187Re–187Os system The 176Lu–176Hf system Other long-lived nuclides of potential cosmochemical significance Short-lived radionuclides The 129I–129Xe system The 26Al–26Mg system The 41Ca–41K system The 53Mn–53Cr system The 60Fe–60Ni system The 107Pd–107Ag system The 146Sm–142Nd system The 182Hf–182W system The 10Be–10B system Other short-lived nuclides of potential cosmochemical significance Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesChronology of the solar system from radioactive isotopesOverview Age of the elements and environment in which the Sun formed Age of the solar system Early solar system chronology Primitive components in chondrites Accretion and history of chondritic parent bodies Accretion and differentiation of achondritic parent bodies Accretion, differentiation, and igneous history of planets and the Moon Age of the Earth Age of the Moon Age of Mars Shock ages and impact histories Shock ages of meteorites Shock ages of lunar rocks The late heavy bombardment Cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites Cosmic-ray exposure ages Terrestrial ages Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesThe most volatile elements and compounds: organic matter, noble gases, and ices
Overview Volatility Organic matter: occurrence and complexity Extractable organic matter in chondrites Insoluble macromolecules in chondrites Stable isotopes in organic compounds Are organic compounds interstellar or nebular? Noble gases and how they are analyzed Noble gas components in extraterrestrial samples Nuclear components The solar components Planetary components Planetary atmospheres Condensation and accretion of ices Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesChemistry of anhydrous planetesimalsOverview Dry asteroids and meteorites Asteroids: a geologic context for meteorites Appearance and physical properties Spectroscopy and classification Orbits, distribution, and delivery Chemical compositions of anhydrous asteroids and meteorites Analyses of asteroids by spacecraft remote sensing Chondritic meteorites Differentiated meteorites Thermal evolution of anhydrous asteroids Thermal structure of the asteroid belt Collisions among asteroids Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesChemistry of comets and other ice-bearing planetesimalsOverview Icy bodies in the solar system Orbital and physical characteristics Orbits Appearance and physical properties Chemistry of comets Comet ices Comet dust: spectroscopy and spacecraft analysis Interplanetary dust particles Returned comet samples Ice-bearing asteroids and altered meteorites Spectroscopy of asteroids formed beyond the snowline Aqueous alteration of chondrites Thermal evolution of ice-bearing bodies Chemistry of hydrated carbonaceous chondrites Variations among ice-bearing planetesimals Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesGeochemical exploration of planets: Moon and Mars as case studiesOverview Why the Moon and Mars? Global geologic context for lunar geochemistry Geochemical tools for lunar exploration Instruments on orbiting spacecraft Laboratory analysis of returned lunar samples and lunar meteorites Measured composition of the lunar crust Sample geochemistry Geochemical mapping by spacecraft Compositions of the lunar mantle and core Geochemical evolution of the Moon Global geologic context for Mars geochemistry Geochemical tools for Mars exploration Instruments on orbiting spacecraft Instruments on landers and rovers Laboratory analyses of Martian meteorites Measured composition of the Martian crust Composition of the crust Water, chemical weathering, and evaporites Compositions of the Martian mantle and core Geochemical evolution of Mars Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesCosmochemical models for the formation of the solar systemOverview Constraints on the nebula From gas and dust to Sun and accretion disk Temperatures in the accretion disk Localized heating: nebular shocks and the X-wind model Accretion and bulk compositions of planets Agglomeration of planetesimals and planets Constraints on planet bulk compositions Models for estimating bulk chemistry Formation of the terrestrial planets Planetesimal building blocks Delivery of volatiles to the terrestrial planets Planetary differentiation Formation of the giant planets Orbital and collisional evolution of the modern solar system Summary Questions Suggestions for further reading ReferencesAppendix: Some analytical techniques commonly used in cosmochemistryChemical compositions of bulk samples Wet chemical analysis X-ray fluorescence (XRF) Neutron activation analysis Petrology, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and mineral structure Optical microscopy Electron-beam techniques Other techniques for determining chemical composition and mineral structure Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) Inductively coupled-plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) X-ray diffraction (XRD) Synchrotron techniques Mass spectrometry Ion sources Mass analyzers Detectors Mass spectrometer systems used in cosmochemistry Raman spectroscopy Flight instruments Gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers Alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer Mössbauer spectrometer Sample preparation Thin-section preparation Sample preparation for EBSD Sample preparation for the TEM Preparing aerogel keystones Preparation of samples for TIMS and ICPMS Details of radiometric dating systems using neutron activation 40Ar–39 Ar dating 129I–129Xe dating Suggestions for further reading Index
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