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McSween Harry Y., Huss Gary R. Cosmochemistry

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McSween Harry Y., Huss Gary R. Cosmochemistry
Cambridge University Press. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK. 2010. — 569 с.
How did the Solar System's chemical composition evolve? This textbook provides the answers in the first interdisciplinary introduction to cosmochemistry. It makes this exciting and evolving field accessible to undergraduate and graduate students from a range of backgrounds, including geology, chemistry, astronomy and physics. The authors - two established leaders who have pioneered developments in the field - provide a complete background to cosmochemical processes and discoveries, enabling students outside geochemistry to understand and explore the Solar System's composition. Topics covered include: - synthesis of nuclides in stars - partitioning of elements between solids, liquids and gas in the solar nebula - overviews of the chemistry of extraterrestrial materials - isotopic tools used to investigate processes such as planet accretion and element fractionation - chronology of the early Solar System - geochemical exploration of planets Boxes provide basic definitions and mini-courses in mineralogy, organic chemistry, and other essential background information for students. Review questions and additional reading for each chapter encourage students to explore cosmochemistry further.
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Космохимия, наука о химическом составе космических тел, законах распространённости и распределения химических элементов во Вселенной, процессах сочетания и миграции атомов при образовании космического вещества. Космохимия исследует преимущественно "холодные" процессы на уровне взаимодействий веществ, в то время как "горячими" ядерными процессами в космосе — плазменным состоянием вещества, нуклеогенезом (процессом образования элементов) внутри звезд и др. — в основном занимается физика.
Contents
Preface
Introduction to cosmochemistry
Overview
What is cosmochemistry?
Geochemistry versus cosmochemistry
Beginnings of cosmochemistry (and geochemistry)
Philosophical foundations
Meteorites and microscopy
Spectroscopy and the compositions of stars
Solar system element abundances
Isotopes and nuclear physics
Space exploration and samples from other worlds
New sources of extraterrestrial materials
Organic matter and extraterrestrial life?
The tools and datasets of cosmochemistry
Laboratory and spacecraft analyses
Cosmochemical theory
Relationship of cosmochemistry to other disciplines
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References

Nuclides and elements: the building blocks of matter
Overview
Elementary particles, isotopes, and elements
Chart of the nuclides: organizing elements by their nuclear properties
Radioactive elements and their modes of decay
The periodic table: organizing elements by their chemistry properties
Chemical bonding
Chemical and physical processes relevant to cosmochemistry
Isotope effects from chemical and physical processes
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Origin of the elements
Overview
In the beginning
The Big Bang model
Observational evidence
Nucleosynthesis in stars
Classification, masses, and lifetimes of stars
The life cycles of stars
Stellar nucleosynthesis processes
Origin of the galaxy and galactic chemical evolution
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Solar system and cosmic abundances: elements and isotopes
Overview
Chemistry on a grand scale
Historical perspective
How are solar system abundances determined?
Determining elemental abundances in the Sun
Spectroscopic observations of the Sun
Collecting and analyzing the solar wind
Determining chemical abundances in meteorites
Importance of CI chondrites
Measuring CI abundances
Indirect methods of estimating abundances
Solar system abundances of the elements
Solar system abundances of the isotopes
How did solar system abundances arise?
Differences between solar system and cosmic abundances
How are solar system abundances used in cosmochemistry?
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Presolar grains: a record of stellar nucleosynthesis and processes in interstellar space
Overview
Grains that predate the solar system
A cosmochemical detective story
Recognizing presolar grains in meteorites
Known types of presolar grains
Identification and characterization of presolar grains
Locating and identifying presolar grains
Characterization of presolar grains
Identification of stellar sources
Grains from AGB stars
Supernova grains
Nova grains
Other stellar sources
Presolar grains as probes of stellar nucleosynthesis
Input data for stellar models
Internal stellar structure
The neutron source(s) for the s-process
Constraining supernova models
Galactic chemical evolution
Presolar grains as tracers of circumstellar and interstellar environments
Silicon carbide
Graphite grains from AGB stars
Graphite grains from supernovae
Interstellar grains
Presolar grains as probes of the early solar system
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Meteorites: a record of nebular and planetary processes
Overview
Primitive versus differentiated
Components of chondrites
Chondrules
Refractory inclusions
Metals and sulfide
Matrix
Chondrite classification
Primary characteristics: chemical compositions
Secondary characteristics: petrologic types
Chondrite taxonomy
Other classification parameters: shock and weathering
Oxygen isotopes in chondrites
Classification of nonchondritic meteorites
Primitive achondrites
Acapulcoites and lodranites
Ureilites
Winonaites and IAB silicate inclusions
Magmatic achondrites
Aubrites
Howardites–eucrites–diogenites
Angrites
Irons and stony irons
Classification and composition of iron meteorites
Pallasites and mesosiderites
Lunar samples
Martian meteorites
Oxygen isotopes in differentiated meteorites
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Cosmochemical and geochemical fractionations
Overview
What are chemical fractionations and why are they important?
Condensation as a fractionation process
Condensation sequences
Applicability of condensation calculations to the early solar system
Volatile element depletions
Gas–solid interactions
Gas–liquid interactions
Igneous fractionations
Magmatic processes that lead to fractionation
Element partitioning
Physical fractionations
Sorting of chondrite components
Fractionations by impacts or pyroclastic activity
Element fractionation resulting from oxidation/reduction
Element fractionation resulting from planetary differentiation
Fractionation of isotopes
Mass-dependent fractionation
Fractionations produced by ion–molecule reactions
Planetary mass-dependent fractionations
Mass-independent fractionation
Radiogenic isotope fractionation and planetary differentiation
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Radioisotopes as chronometers
Overview
Methods of age determination
Discussing radiometric ages and time
Basic principles of radiometric age dating
Long-lived radionuclides
The 40K–40Ar system
The 87Rb–87Sr system
The 147Sm–143Nd system
The U–Th–Pb system
The 187Re–187Os system
The 176Lu–176Hf system
Other long-lived nuclides of potential cosmochemical significance
Short-lived radionuclides
The 129I–129Xe system
The 26Al–26Mg system
The 41Ca–41K system
The 53Mn–53Cr system
The 60Fe–60Ni system
The 107Pd–107Ag system
The 146Sm–142Nd system
The 182Hf–182W system
The 10Be–10B system
Other short-lived nuclides of potential cosmochemical significance
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Chronology of the solar system from radioactive isotopes
Overview
Age of the elements and environment in which the Sun formed
Age of the solar system
Early solar system chronology
Primitive components in chondrites
Accretion and history of chondritic parent bodies
Accretion and differentiation of achondritic parent bodies
Accretion, differentiation, and igneous history of planets and the Moon
Age of the Earth
Age of the Moon
Age of Mars
Shock ages and impact histories
Shock ages of meteorites
Shock ages of lunar rocks
The late heavy bombardment
Cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites
Cosmic-ray exposure ages
Terrestrial ages
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
The most volatile elements and compounds: organic matter, noble gases, and ices

Overview
Volatility
Organic matter: occurrence and complexity
Extractable organic matter in chondrites
Insoluble macromolecules in chondrites
Stable isotopes in organic compounds
Are organic compounds interstellar or nebular?
Noble gases and how they are analyzed
Noble gas components in extraterrestrial samples
Nuclear components
The solar components
Planetary components
Planetary atmospheres
Condensation and accretion of ices
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Chemistry of anhydrous planetesimals
Overview
Dry asteroids and meteorites
Asteroids: a geologic context for meteorites
Appearance and physical properties
Spectroscopy and classification
Orbits, distribution, and delivery
Chemical compositions of anhydrous asteroids and meteorites
Analyses of asteroids by spacecraft remote sensing
Chondritic meteorites
Differentiated meteorites
Thermal evolution of anhydrous asteroids
Thermal structure of the asteroid belt
Collisions among asteroids
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Chemistry of comets and other ice-bearing planetesimals
Overview
Icy bodies in the solar system
Orbital and physical characteristics
Orbits
Appearance and physical properties
Chemistry of comets
Comet ices
Comet dust: spectroscopy and spacecraft analysis
Interplanetary dust particles
Returned comet samples
Ice-bearing asteroids and altered meteorites
Spectroscopy of asteroids formed beyond the snowline
Aqueous alteration of chondrites
Thermal evolution of ice-bearing bodies
Chemistry of hydrated carbonaceous chondrites
Variations among ice-bearing planetesimals
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Geochemical exploration of planets: Moon and Mars as case studies
Overview
Why the Moon and Mars?
Global geologic context for lunar geochemistry
Geochemical tools for lunar exploration
Instruments on orbiting spacecraft
Laboratory analysis of returned lunar samples and lunar meteorites
Measured composition of the lunar crust
Sample geochemistry
Geochemical mapping by spacecraft
Compositions of the lunar mantle and core
Geochemical evolution of the Moon
Global geologic context for Mars geochemistry
Geochemical tools for Mars exploration
Instruments on orbiting spacecraft
Instruments on landers and rovers
Laboratory analyses of Martian meteorites
Measured composition of the Martian crust
Composition of the crust
Water, chemical weathering, and evaporites
Compositions of the Martian mantle and core
Geochemical evolution of Mars
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Cosmochemical models for the formation of the solar system
Overview
Constraints on the nebula
From gas and dust to Sun and accretion disk
Temperatures in the accretion disk
Localized heating: nebular shocks and the X-wind model
Accretion and bulk compositions of planets
Agglomeration of planetesimals and planets
Constraints on planet bulk compositions
Models for estimating bulk chemistry
Formation of the terrestrial planets
Planetesimal building blocks
Delivery of volatiles to the terrestrial planets
Planetary differentiation
Formation of the giant planets
Orbital and collisional evolution of the modern solar system
Summary
Questions
Suggestions for further reading
References
Appendix: Some analytical techniques commonly used in cosmochemistry
Chemical compositions of bulk samples
Wet chemical analysis
X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
Neutron activation analysis
Petrology, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and mineral structure
Optical microscopy
Electron-beam techniques
Other techniques for determining chemical composition and mineral structure
Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)
Inductively coupled-plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)
X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Synchrotron techniques
Mass spectrometry
Ion sources
Mass analyzers
Detectors
Mass spectrometer systems used in cosmochemistry
Raman spectroscopy
Flight instruments
Gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers
Alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer
Mössbauer spectrometer
Sample preparation
Thin-section preparation
Sample preparation for EBSD
Sample preparation for the TEM
Preparing aerogel keystones
Preparation of samples for TIMS and ICPMS
Details of radiometric dating systems using neutron activation
40Ar–39 Ar dating
129I–129Xe dating
Suggestions for further reading
Index
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