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Stevenson P. Foam Engineering: Fundamentals and Applications

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Stevenson P. Foam Engineering: Fundamentals and Applications
Handbook. — Chichester, Wiley, 2012. — 548 p.
Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research.
The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams.
The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.
Introduction
Gas–Liquid Foam in Products and Processes
Content of This Volume
A Personal View of Collaboration in Foam Research
Fundamentals
Foam Morphology
Introduction
Basic Rules of Foam Morphology
Two-dimensional Foams
Ordered Foams
Disordered Foams
Statistics of 3D Foams
Structures in Transition: Instabilities and Topological Changes
Other Types of Foams
Conclusions
Foam Drainage
Introduction
Geometric Considerations
A Drained Foam
The Continuity Equation
Interstitial Flow
Forced Drainage
Rigid Interfaces and Neglecting Nodes: The Original Foam Drainage Equation
Mobile Interfaces and Neglecting Nodes
Neglecting Channels: The Node-dominated Model
The Network Model: Combining Nodes and Channels
The Carman – Kozeny Approach
Interpreting Forced Drainage Experiments: A Detailed Look
Unresolved Issues
A Brief History of Foam Drainage
Foam Ripening
Introduction
The Very Wet Limit
The Very Dry Limit
Wet Foams
Controlling the Coarsening Rate
Coalescence in Foams
Introduction
Stability of Isolated Thin Films
Structure and Dynamics of Foam Rupture
What Are the Key Parameters in the Coalescence Process?
How Do We Explain the Existence of a Critical Liquid Fraction?
Conclusion
Foam Rheology
Introduction
Main Experimental and Theoretical Approaches
Foam Visco-elasticity
Yielding
Plastic Flow
Viscous Dissipation in Steadily Sheared Foams
Foam–Wall Viscous Friction
Conclusions
Particle Stabilized Foams
Introduction
Summary of Some Empirical Observations
On the Thermodynamic Stability of Particle Stabilized Foams
On the Ability of Particles to Stabilize Foams during Their Production
Design Rules for Particle Stabilized Foams
Conclusions
Pneumatic Foam
Preamble
Vertical Pneumatic Foam
Horizontal Flow of Pneumatic Foam
Pneumatic Foam in Inclined Channels
Methods of Pneumatic Foam Production
Non-aqueous Foams: Formation and Stability
Introduction
Phase Behavior of Diglycerol Fatty Acid Esters in Oils
Non-aqueous Foaming Properties
Conclusion
Suprafroth: Ageless Two-dimensional Electronic Froth
Introduction
The Intermediate State in Type-I Superconductors
Observation and Study of the Tubular Intermediate State Patterns
Structural Statistical Analysis of the Suprafroth
Applications
Froth Phase Phenomena in Flotation

Introduction
Froth Stability
Hydrodynamic Condition of the Froth
Detachment of Particles from Bubbles
Gangue Recovery
The Velocity Field of Froth Bubbles
Plant Experience of Froth Flotation
Froth Flotation of Oil Sand Bitumen
Introduction
Oil Sands
Mining and Slurrying
Froth Structure
Physical Properties of Froths
Froth Treatment
Conclusion
Foams in Enhancing Petroleum Recovery
Introduction
Foam Applications for the Upstream Petroleum Industry
Foam Applications in Wells and Near Wells
Foam Applications in Reservoir Processes
Occurrences of Foams at the Surface and Downstream
Conclusion
Foam Fractionation
Introduction
Adsorption in Foam Fractionation
Foam Drainage
Coarsening and Foam Stability
Foam Fractionation Devices and Process Intensification
Concluding Remarks about Industrial Practice
Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer in Foam
Introduction
Non-overflowing Pneumatic Foam Devices
Overflowing Pneumatic Foam Devices
The Waldhof Fermentor
Induced Air Methods
Horizontal Foam Contacting
Calculation of Specific Interfacial Area in Foam
Hydrodynamics of Pneumatic Foam
Mass Transfer and Equilibrium Considerations
Towards an Integrated Model of Foam Gas–Liquid Contactors
Discussion and Future Directions
Foams in Glass Manufacturing
Introduction
Glass Foams in Glass Melting Furnaces
Physical Phenomena
Experimental Studies
Modeling
Measures for Reducing Glass Foaming in Glass Melting Furnaces
Perspective and Future Research Directions
Fire-fighting Foam Technology
Introduction
History
Applications
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Testing
The Future
Foams in Consumer Products
Introduction
Creation and Structure
Sensory Appeal
Conclusions
Foams for Blast Mitigation
Introduction
Free Field Tests
Shock Tube Testing
Theoretical Approaches
Conclusions
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