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Ahern K. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: How Life Works

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Ahern K. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: How Life Works
Chantilly: The Teaching Company, 2019. — 414 p.
One of the triumphs of modern science has been our ever-improving understanding of how life works—how chemical reactions at the cellular level account for respiration, digestion, reproduction, locomotion, and a host of other living processes. This exciting subject is biochemistry—and its allied field of molecular biology. In the past century, progress in these complementary disciplines has been astonishing, and a week rarely passes without major advances in medicine, physiology, genetics, nutrition, agriculture, or other areas, where biochemistry and molecular biology are shedding new light on life.
Contents :

Professor Biography
Course Scope
Acknowledgments
Biochemistry: A Young Science
Molecules and Minerals
Proteins and Enzymes
Cells as Houses for Reactions
Water’s Electronegativity
Water’s Polarity
Water’s Ability to Ionize
R Groups and Chiral Compounds
Nonpolar, Hydrophobic Amino Acids
Polar, Hydrophilic Amino Acids
The Amino Acid Alphabet
The Primary Structure of a Protein
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
Protein Folding
Helper Proteins
Protein Folding Gone Wrong
Flexible Proteins
Carrying Oxygen
Carrying Protons and Carbon Dioxide
Adult versus Fetal Hemoglobin
Sickle Cell Anemia
Enzymes as Catalysts
Enzyme Energy
Enzyme Specificity
Enzyme Velocity
How Cells Regulate Enzymes
Allosteric Regulation
Covalent Modification
Physical Inhibition
Fatty Acids
Triacylglycerols
Glycerophospholipids
Sphingolipids
What Are Sugars?
Why Do Sugars Appeal to Us?
How Do Cells Make Glucose?
Problems Caused by Sugar
ATP and Oxidation
Using Thermodynamics
Determining ∆G
Sugar Glycolysis
Fatty Acid Oxidation
The Role of Energy Extraction
Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle
Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways
The Structure of Mitochondria
The Electron Transport Chain
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Oxygen: Key to Both Processes
The Light Reactions of Photosynthesis
Gluconeogenesis
Glycogenesis
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
The Synthesis of Fatty Acids
Key Steps in Cholesterol Synthesis
Cellular Membranes
Lipoprotein Complexes
Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
The Role of Electron Transport
Fermentation
—How Plants Make Carbs and Other Metabolites
The Calvin Cycle
Photorespiration
Secondary Metabolites
Nitrogen Fixation
Amino Acids
Nucleotides
Free Radicals
Oxidative Stress
The Gut Microbiome
Cellular Signals
The Stress-Response System
Cell Division
The Nervous System
Neurotransmitters
Serotonin and Dopamine
Taste
Smell
Vision
Hearing
Touch
Caffeine
Fructose
Alcohol
Exercise
Genetic Inheritance
Aging
DNA
Instructions for Making Proteins
Storing and Copying Information
RNA
DNA Replication
Replication in Bacteria
PCR in the Lab
—Chromosome Replication, Telomeres, Aging
Telomeres
Aging
—DNA Mismatch and Excision Repair
Sources of Mutation and Damage to DNA
Mismatch Repair
Excision Repair
Other Sources of Genetic Mutation and Damage
Cell Division
Swapping and Recombination
DNA Repair
Antibody Creation
Gene Inactivation and Editing
Copying RNA
Making RNA
Transcription in Prokaryotes
Transcription in Eukaryotes
—Translating RNA into Proteins
Inventory for Protein Production
Stages of Protein Synthesis
Protein Delivery
Prokaryotic Gene Expression
Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Epigenetic Control
Gene Expression after Transcription
—Human Genetic Disease and Gene Therapy
Hemophilia
Cystic Fibrosis
Alzheimer’s Disease
Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
Unregulated Cell Division
Proto-Oncogenes
Tumor Suppressors
Approaches to Treating Cancer
Recombinant DNA
Stem Cells
Therapeutic Cloning
Designer Genomes
Genome Sequencing
Cataloguing Variations in Genomes
Other Omics
Answers
Bibliography
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