Montgomery Douglas C., Runger George C. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers
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Third Edition. - Wiley, 2003. - 822 p.This is an introductory textbook for a first course in applied statistics and probability for undergraduate students in engineering and the physical or chemical sciences. These individuals play a significant role in designing and developing new products and manufacturing systems and processes, and they also improve existing systems. Statistical methods are an important tool in these activities because they provide the engineer with both descriptive and analytical methods for dealing with the variability in observed data. Although many of the methods we present are fundamental to statistical analysis in other disciplines, such as business and management, the life sciences, and the social sciences, we have elected to focus on an engineering-oriented audience. We believe that this approach will best serve students in engineering and the chemical/physical sciences and will allow them to concentrate on the many applications of statistics in these disciplines. We have worked hard to ensure that our examples and exercises are engineering- and science-based, and in almost all cases we have used examples of real data—either taken from a published source or based on our consulting experiences. We believe that engineers in all disciplines should take at least one course in statistics. Unfortunately, because of other requirements, most engineers will only take one statistics course. This book can be used for a single course, although we have provided enough material for two courses in the hope that more students will see the important applications of statistics in their everyday work and elect a second course. We believe that this book will also serve as a useful reference.Chapter 1 is an introduction to the field of statistics and how engineers use statistical methodology as part of the engineering problem-solving process. This chapter also introduces the reader to some engineering applications of statistics, including building empirical models, designing engineering experiments, and monitoring manufacturing processes. These topics are discussed in more depth in subsequent chapters. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 cover the basic concepts of probability, discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, expected values, joint probability distributions, and independence. We have given a reasonably complete treatment of these topics but have avoided many of the mathematical or more theoretical details. Chapter 6 begins the treatment of statistical methods with random sampling; data summary and description techniques, including stem-and-leaf plots, histograms, box plots, and probability plotting; and several types of time series plots. Chapter 7 discusses point estimation of parameters. This chapter also introduces some of the important properties of estimators, the method of maximum likelihood, the method of moments, sampling distributions, and the central limit theorem. Chapter 8 discusses interval estimation for a single sample. Topics included are confidence intervals for means, variances or standard deviations, and proportions and prediction and tolerance intervals. Chapter 9 discusses hypothesis tests for a single sample. Chapter 10 presents tests and confidence intervals for two samples. This material has been extensively rewritten and reorganized. There is detailed information and examples of methods for determining appropriate sample sizes. We want the student to become familiar with how these techniques are used to solve real-world engineering problems and to get some understanding of the concepts behind them. We give a logical, heuristic development of the procedures, rather than a formal mathematical one. Chapters 11 and 12 present simple and multiple linear regression. We use matrix algebra throughout the multiple regression material (Chapter 12) because it is the only easy way to understand the concepts presented. Scalar arithmetic presentations of multiple regression are awkward at best, and we have found that undergraduate engineers are exposed to enough matrix algebra to understand the presentation of this material. Chapters 13 and 14 deal with single- and multifactor experiments, respectively. The notions of randomization, blocking, factorial designs, interactions, graphical data analysis, and fractional factorials are emphasized. Chapter 15 gives a brief introduction to the methods and applications of nonparametric statistics, and Chapter 16 introduces statistical quality control, emphasizing the control chart and the fundamentals of statistical process control.Each chapter has an extensive collection of exercises, including end-of-section exercises that emphasize the material in that section, supplemental exercises at the end of the chapter that cover the scope of chapter topics, and mind-expanding exercises that often require the student to extend the text material somewhat or to apply it in a novel situation. As noted above, answers are provided to most odd-numbered exercises and the e-Text contains complete solutions to selected exercises.
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