Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015. — 473 p. — ISBN: 0444626166,9780444626165Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in ‘real time’. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen is the only solution for long-term storage systems to provide energy during extended periods of low wind speeds or solar insolation. Future electricity grid design has to include storage systems as a major component for grid stability and for security of supply. The technology of systems designed to achieve this regulation of the supply of renewable energy, and a survey of the markets that they will serve, is the subject of this book. It includes economic aspects to guide the development of technology in the right direction.Provides state-of-the-art information on all of the storage systems together with an assessment of competing technologies. Features detailed technical, economic and environmental impact information of different storage systems. Contains information about the challenges that must be faced for batteries and hydrogen-storage to be used in conjunction with a fluctuating (renewable energy) power supply.Table of Contents.Preface.Introduction - Renewable Energies, Markets and Storage Technology Classification. The Exploitation of Renewable Sources of Energy for Power Generation. Classification of Storage Systems. Challenges of Power Systems. Applications and Markets for Grid-Connected Storage Systems. Existing Markets for Storage Systems in Off-Grid Applications. Review of the Need for Storage Capacity Depending on the Share of Renewable Energies.Storage Technologies. Overview of Nonelectrochemical Storage Technologies. Hydrogen Production from Renewable Energies—Electrolyzer Technologies. Large-Scale Hydrogen Energy Storage. Hydrogen Conversion into Electricity and Thermal Energy by Fuel Cells: Use of H2-Systems and Batteries. PEM Electrolyzers and PEM Regenerative Fuel Cells Industrial View. Energy Carriers Made from Hydrogen. Energy Storage with Lead–Acid Batteries. Nickel–Cadmium and Nickel–Metal Hydride Battery Energy Storage. High-Temperature Sodium Batteries for Energy Storage. Lithium Battery Energy Storage: State of the Art Including Lithium–Air and Lithium–Sulfur Systems. Redox Flow Batteries. Metal Storage/Metal Air (Zn, Fe, Al, Mg). Electrochemical Double-layer Capacitors.System Aspects. Battery Management and Battery Diagnostics. Life Cycle Cost Calculation and Comparison for Different Reference Cases and Market Segments. ‘Double Use’ of Storage Systems.
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