World Health Organization, 1995. — 353 p. — ISBN: 978-9241544610A didactic, illustrated guide to the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Prepared by an international group of experts with wide experience in both developed and developing countries, the manual responds to the need for a basic reference text that can help doctors, sonographers, nurses, and midwives solve imaging problems when no experts are available. With this need in mind, the manual adopts a practical approach aimed at providing a thorough grounding in both the techniques of ultrasound and the interpretation of images. The need for extensive supervised training is repeatedly emphasized. Because the clinical value of ultrasound depends so greatly on the experience and skill of the operator, the manual makes a special effort to alert readers to common pitfalls and errors, and to indicate specific clinical situations where ultrasound may not be helpful or reliable as a diagnostic tool. Explanatory text is supported by numerous practical tips, warnings, checklists and over 600 illustrations. The opening chapters explain how ultrasound works, outline the factors to consider when choosing a scanner, and introduce the basic rules of scanning, including advice on how to recognize and interpret artefacts. Guidance on the selection of ultrasound equipment includes clear advice concerning where costs can be spared and where investment is essential. The core of the manual consists of seventeen chapters providing guidance on scanning techniques and the interpretation of images for specific organs and anatomical sites, with the most extensive chapter devoted to obstetrics. Each chapter contains illustrated information on indications for scanning, preparation of the patient, including choice of transducer and setting of the correct gain, general scanning techniques, and specific techniques for identifying anatomical landmarks and recognizing abnormalities. The manual concludes with WHO specifications for a general-purpose scanner judged entirely suitable for 90-95% of the most common ultrasound examinations.Basics of ultrasound Choosing an ultrasound scanner Basic rules of scanning Acoustic coupling agents Abdomen Abdominal aorta Inferior vena cava Liver Gallbladder and biliary tract Pancreas Spleen Peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract Kidneys and ureters Urinary bladder Scrotum and testis Gynaecology (non-pregnant female pelvis) Obstetrics Neonates Neck Pericardium Pleura Ultrasound-guided needle puncture
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