Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry. Volume 40. — Washington: Mineralogical Society of America, 2000. — 608 p. — ISBN 0-939950-52-9.
The review chapters in this volume were the basis for a short course on sulfate minerals sponsored by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) November 11-12, 2000 in Tahoe City, California, prior to the Annual Meeting of MSA, the Geological Society of America, and other associated societies in nearby Reno, Nevada. The conveners of the course (and editors of this volume of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry), Charles Alpers, John Jambor, and Kirk Nordstrom, also organized related topical sessions at the GSA meeting on sulfate minerals in both hydrothermal and low-temperature environments. A special issue of a journal yet to be identified is being planned for the publication of research articles based on several of these presentations. Taken together, the MSA short course and the related GSA sessions represent the most comprehensive grouping of technical meetings ever devoted to sulfate minerals.
The Crystal Chemistry of Sulfate Minerals Introduction Chemical Bonding Stereochemistry of Sulfate Tetrahedra in Minerals Variation in (S–Ø) distances Variation in S–O distances General polyhedral distortion in sulfate minerals S6+ ↔ Tn+ substitution in minerals and its influence on (S,T)–O distances Hydrogen bonding in sulfate minerals Stereochemistry of Thiosulfate Tetrahedra Variation in (S–Ø) distances Variation in S–O distances The formal valences of S in the thiosulfate group Stereochemistry of Fluorosulfate Tetrahedra Variation in S–Ø distances Molecular-Orbital Studies of SO4 Polyhedra The role of 3d-orbitals in bonding in sulfates Stability of the (SO4)2– tetrahedron (H2SO4) and (H2S2O7) clusters: prediction of equilibrium geometry Bond angles in (SO4)2– tetrahedra Alkali metal-sulfate clusters Experimental studies of electron density Theoretical studies of electron densities Models of chemical bonding Hierarchical Organization of Crystal Structures Polymerization of SO4 and Other TØ4 Tetrahedra A Structural Hierarchy for Sulfate Minerals Structures Based on Sulfate Tetrahedra and Divalent and/or Trivalent Cation Octahedra Graphical representation of octahedral-tetrahedral structures Structures with unconnected SO4 groups Structures with finite clusters of polyhedra Structures with infinite chains Structures with infinite sheets Structures with infinite frameworks Structures with Non-Octahedral Cation-Coordination Polyhedra Calcium-sulfate minerals Alkali-metal- and NH4-sulfate minerals Apatite-like structures Sulfates with the barite structure Pb4(SO4)(CO3)2(OH)2 polymorphs Uranyl sulfates Sulfates with non-sulfate tetrahedral sheets or frameworks Basic sulfates of Sb3+ and Bi3+ Miscellaneous sulfates Structures with Anion-Centered Tetrahedra Thiosulfate Minerals Sulfite Minerals Fluorosulfate Minerals Acknowledgments Appendix: Index of mineral names and the table numbers in which they appear References X-ray and Vibrational Spectroscopy of Sulfate in Earth Materials Introduction X-ray Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray imaging and spectromicroscopy Vibrational Spectroscopy Symmetry and vibrational modes of sulfate and its complexes Data collection and analysis Vibrational spectra of sulfate in solids Vibrational spectra of sulfate in aqueous solutions Vibrational spectra of sulfate at the interfaces Spectromicroscopy of sulfates Complementary Spectroscopic Methods Scattering methods Infrared emission spectroscopy Optical spectroscopy Summary and Future Directions Acknowledgments References Sulfate Minerals in Evaporite Deposits Solubility Controls on Mineral Precipitation and Paths of Evaporation Solubility of Na-K-Ca-Mg-bearing sulfate minerals Chemical divides in the system Ca2+–SO42––HCO3– Precipitation sequences of Na-K-Mg-bearing sulfates Radium Fluid inclusions Barite in Submarine Volcanic Hydrothermal Systems Sulfide-poor barite deposits of Archean age Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits Modem submarine hydrothermal barite Sedimentary Exhalative (Sedex) Deposits of Barite Proterozoic barite Phanerozoic convergent continental margins Ordovician-Devonian Roberts Mountain allochthon, Nevada Cenozoic strike-slip margins Sedex barite deposits in active marine evaporite settings The question of metal-bearing and metal-free bedded barite deposits Cenozoic Pelagic Barite and Dispersed Barite in Deep Sea Sediments Barite in seawater Mode(s) of precipitation of pelagic barite Fate of barite in the water column Barite in deep-sea sediments Epigenetic Barite Deposits and Evaporites Carbonate-hosted barite deposits Continental rifts Barite in late-stage thrust belts Dispersed cements and nodules of barite Barite of Continental Igneous and Igneous-Hydrothermal Origin Carbonatites Other magmatic examples Hydrothermal barite in the Cordilleran of the western United States Barite from outer space Behavior of Barite during Weathering, Diagenesis, and Metamorphism Formation of barite in soil environments Subaerial weathering of barite Solution and reprecipitation of barite in diagenetic redox fronts Behavior of barite during metamorphism Celestine in Sedimentary Environments Pelagic celestine Carbonate sediments Celestine in coastal carbonate-evaporite sequences Environmental Aspects Barium in potable water supplies Barite and the uranium industry Problems related to oil and gas production An example of a «bad rap» for barite Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Evaporation paths and mineralogy of marine evaporites Evaporation paths and mineralogy of non-marine evaporites Mineral Textures and Fabrics Criteria for syndepositional features Criteria for burial alteration features Ambiguous features Summary References Barite-Celestine Geochemistry and Environments of Formation Introduction Geological significance of barite and celestine Economic importance Some conventions and terms used in this chapter Physical Chemistry Crystal chemistry and solid-phase relations Solubility of barite and celestine in aqueous solutions Stability ranges in multicomponent systems Ba, Sr, and S in Crustal Rocks and Natural Waters Crustal abundance and controls on the distribution of Ba and Sr Sulfate geochemistry Waters in sedimentary basins Meteoric groundwaters Seawater River and estuarine waters Waters in crystalline rocks Continental rifts Seafloor hydrothermal vents Review of controls on Sr/Ba ratios in natural waters Environments of Formation of Barite and Celestine: An Overview Mechanisms for the precipitation of barite and celestine Relation of barite and celestine occurrences to global tectonics and regional hydrogeology Relation of barite and celestine occurrences to the secular evolution of sedimentary rock types Marine versus continental barite Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Barite and Celestine: An Overview Frequency distribution of compositions in the barite-celestine series Ba-Sr zoning in barite-celestine Other cations Strontium isotopic composition Sulfur isotopic composition Oxygen isotopic composition Precipitation and Dissolution of Alkaline Earth Sulfates: Kinetics and Surface Energy Introduction Driving Forces for Growth and Dissolution Supersaturation Definition and Determination of Growth Rate Rate determination Crystallization and Dissolution Kinetics Homogeneous nucleation Heterogeneous nucleation Determination of interfacial free energy Interfacial energies between minerals and aqueous solutions Contact-Angle Method Surface-tension component theory Contact-angle measurement and thin-layer wicking Conclusions Nomenclature Symbols Subscripts and superscripts References Metal-sulfate Salts from Sulfide Mineral Oxidation Compositions and Crystal Chemistry of Hydrated Metal Salts Divalent cations Trivalent cations Mixed divalent-trivalent salts Other minerals Processes of Formation, Transformation and Dissolution Pyrite oxidation Field studies Dissolution during rainfall events Laboratory studies Solubilities and stability relationships Paragenesis Acknowledgments References Iron and Aluminum Hydroxysulfates from Acid Sulfate Waters Introduction to Acid Sulfate Environments Mine drainage Residues from mineral extraction and ore processing Rock weathering Acid sulfate soils (cat clays) Formation of Acid Sulfate Waters and Associated Weathering Products of Fe and Al The Fe system The Al system Fe and AI Hydroxysulfates of Low Crystallinity Schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH)6SO4•nH2O] Hydroxysulfates of Al Formation and Decomposition of Fe- and Al-Hydroxysulfates of Low Crystallinity Biological influences on mineral formation Geochemical Controls on Mineral Formation The Fe System The AI system Environmental Implications of Trace Element Sorption Sorption of metal cations Sorption of oxyanions Mineral instability and possible affects on sorbed species Summary References Jarosites and Their Application in Hydrometallurgy Introduction Synthesized Members of the Jarosite Subgroup Occurrences of the Jarosite Subgroup Oxidized sulfide deposits and pyritiferous rocks Nodules and disseminations in clays Acid soils Hypogene jarosite Alteration of minerals of the jarosite subgroup Conditions Affecting the Syntheses of the Jarosite Subgroup Sodium, potassium, and ammonium jarosites Jarosite Precipitation in the Zinc Industry Outline of the jarosite process Metallurgical problems and environmental concerns Kinetics of Jarosite Precipitation Flowsheets Impurity Incorporation in Synthetic Jarosites Monovalent substitutions Divalent substitutions Trivalent substitutions Higher valency substitutions Cell Dimensions of the Subgroup Conclusions and Future Trends References Alunite-Jarosite Crystallography, Thermodynamics, and Geochronology Crystallographic Data Unit-cell parameters Thermodynamic Data Alunite and natroalunite Jarosite and natrojarosite Other minerals in the alunite-jarosite supergroup Mixing relations Geochemistry and Occurrences Alunite and natroalunite Jarosite and natrojarosite Geochronology Using Alunite and Jarosite References Solid-Solution Solubilities and Thermodynamics: Sulfates, Carbonates and Halides Introduction Definitions and Representation of Thermodynamic States Thermodynamic equilibrium states Primary saturation states Stoichiometric saturation states Comparison of Solid-Solution and Pure-Phase Solubilities Stoichiometric saturation solubilities Primary saturation and thermodynamic equilibrium solubilities Estimation of Thermodynamic Mixing Parameters Miscibility-gap data Spinodal-gap data Critical mixing-point data Distribution coefficient measurements Stoichiometric saturation solubilities Thermodynamic equilibrium solubilities Excess-free-energy data for selected sulfate, carbonate and halide solid solutions Multicomponent solid-solution systems Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgments References Predicting Sulfate-Mineral Solubility in Concentrated Waters Introduction Background Compositions of concentrated waters Modeling approaches Model Description Summary of model formulation Internal consistency of model data-sets Model Development to Predict Sulfate-Mineral Solubility Sulfate-mineral formation in the system Na-Ca-Mg-K-Cl-SO4-H2O Formation of Ba, Sr, and Rb sulfates Formation of metal sulfates Formation of sulfates in acid systems Formation of sulfates in basic systems Application of the Ion-Interaction Approach to Field Settings Results of the applications Conclusions References Stable Isotope Systematics of Sulfate Minerals Introduction Fundamental Aspects of Stable Isotope Geochemistry Analytical Methods Reference Reservoirs Factors that Control Stable Isotope Fractionation Equilibrium Fractionation Factors Sulfur Oxygen Hydrogen Geothermometry Processes that Cause Stable Isotopic Variations Kinetics of isotope exchange reactions Sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and associated processes Mechanisms of precipitation and dissolution of sulfate minerals Geochemical Environments Secular variations in seawater sulfate isotopic compositions Seafloor hydrothermal systems Magmatic systems Continental hydrothermal systems Metamorphism of sulfate minerals Surficial environments Summary Acknowledgments References Index
Чтобы скачать этот файл зарегистрируйтесь и/или войдите на сайт используя форму сверху.