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Mayr G. Paleogene Fossil Birds

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Mayr G. Paleogene Fossil Birds
Berlin: Springer, 2009. — 262 p. — ISBN 978-3-540-89627-2.

Since birds are predominantly diurnal and often quite vociferous animals, their behavior and ecological requirements are probably better studied than those of any other vertebrate group. Detailed knowledge of their evolutionary history is, however, still limited to a small circle of specialists, and there is a widespread belief that the avian fossil record is poor. This is certainly true if the abundance of bird bones is compared with that of mammalian teeth, which are robust enough to survive even rough depositional environments and collection techniques. In many fossil localities complete skeletons and postcranial elements of birds are, however, not much rarer than those of other small land vertebrates. Numerous avian fossils in collections worldwide have remained further unstudied for decades, so the significant underrepresentation of birds in vertebrate paleontology seems to be due to a low number of specialists rather than a low number of fossils. Concerning certain geological periods and geographic areas, our knowledge of the early evolutionary history of birds is anything but poor. In fact, so many new fossils were described during the past two decades that it becomes increasingly difficult for a single person to cover the whole field of paleornithology. This book gives an account of the evolution of modern birds in the first half of the Cenozoic, aiming not only at specialists in the field of paleornithology, but also at ornithologists and paleontologists in need of detailed information, either for the calibration of molecular data or to set Paleogene faunas into a full context. Given the current pace of new discoveries, I am not cherishing the illusion that this survey will remain up to date for a long time. I do hope, however, that the overall framework outlined for the early diversity and evolution of modern birds will form a stable basis for future studies, and that the readers will find the book a useful source for their own research.

Introduction
Stratigraphy and Major Fossil Localities

Europe
Asia
North America
Central and South America
Africa
Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica
Higher-Level Phylogeny of Extant Birds
Mesozoic Neornithes
Palaeognathous Birds

Lithornithidae
Palaeotididae, Remiornithidae, and Eleutherornithidae
Palaeotididae
Remiornithidae
Eleutherornithidae
Eremopezidae
Rheidae (Rheas)
Casuariidae (Emus and Cassowaries)
Putative Ratite from the Eocene of Antarctica
Galloanseres
Galliformes (Landfowl)
Gallinuloididae
Paraortygidae
Procrax, Archaealectrornis, and Palaeonossax
Quercymegapodiidae
Megapodiidae (Megapodes)
Phasianidae (Grouse, Quails, Pheasants, and Allies)
Gastornithidae
Dromornithidae
Anseriformes (Waterfowl)
Anhimidae (Screamers)
Anseranatidae (Magpie Geese)
Presbyornithidae
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Swans)
Pelagornithidae (Bony-Toothed Birds)
Aquatic and Semiaquatic Taxa
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds) and Suloidea (Gannets, Boobies, Cormorants, and Anhingas)
Protoplotidae
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Sulidae (Gannets and Boobies)
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants) and Anhingidae (Anhingas)
Plotopteridae
Sphenisciformes (Penguins)
Gaviiformes (Loons)
Procellariiformes (Tubenoses)
Scopidae (Hamerkop), Balaenicipitidae (Shoebill), and Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
Ardeidae (Herons)
Xenerodiopidae
Threskiornithidae (Ibises)
Ciconiidae (Storks)
Prophaethontidae and Phaethontidae (Tropicbirds)
Charadriiformes (Shorebirds and Allies)
Lari (Gulls, Auks, and Allies)
Charadrii (Plovers and Allies)
Scolopaci (Sandpipers and Allies)
“Core-Gruiformes” (Rails, Cranes, and Allies)
Messelornithidae and †Walbeckornis
Ralloidea (Finfoots and Rails)
Gruoidea (Trumpeters, Limpkins, and Cranes)
Parvigruidae
Geranoididae
Eogruidae
Aramidae (Limpkins) and Gruidae (Cranes)
Phoenicopteriformes (Flamingos) and Podicipediformes (Grebes)
Columbiformes (Doves and Sandgrouse), Cuculiformes (Cuckoos), and Other Neoavian Taxa of Uncertain Affinities

Columbiformes (Doves and Sandgrouse)
Opisthocomiformes (Hoatzin)
Foratidae
Musophagiformes (Turacos)
Cuculiformes (Cuckoos)
Pumiliornis and †Morsoravis
Parvicuculidae
Otididae (Bustards), Eurypygidae (Sunbittern), Rhynochetidae (Kagu), and Mesitornithidae (Mesites)
“Caprimulgiformes” and Apodiformes (Nightjars and Allies, Swifts, and Hummingbirds)
Fluvioviridavidae
Steatornithidae (Oilbirds)
Podargidae (Frogmouths)
Protocypselomorphus
Archaeotrogonidae
Nyctibiidae (Potoos) and Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)
Nyctibiidae
Caprimulgidae
Aegothelidae (Owlet-Nightjars) and Apodiformes (Swifts and Hummingbirds)
Eocypselidae
Aegialornithidae
Hemiprocnidae (Tree Swifts) and Apodidae (True Swifts)
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Cariamae (Seriemas and Allies)
Phorusrhacidae
Idiornithidae and Elaphrocnemus
Bathornithidae
Ameghinornithidae
Salmilidae
Gradiornis
“Falconiformes” (Diurnal Birds of Prey)
Falconidae (Falcons)
Masillaraptor
Teratornithidae and Cathartidae (New Word Vultures)
Horusornithidae
Sagittariidae (Secretary Birds), Pandionidae (Ospreys), and Accipitridae (Hawks and Allies)
Sagittariidae
Accipitridae and Pandionidae
Strigiformes (Owls)
Berruornis and Sophiornithidae
Protostrigidae
Ogygoptyngidae
Necrobyinae, Palaeoglaucidae, and Selenornithinae
Arboreal Birds
Leptosomidae (Courols)
Coliiformes (Mousebirds)
Sandcoleidae
Coliidae
Psittaciformes (Parrots)
Psittacopes and Allies
Quercypsittidae
Halcyornithidae (“Pseudasturidae”)
Messelasturidae
Zygodactylidae and Passeriformes (Passerines)
Zygodactylidae
Passeriformes
Trogoniformes (Trogons)
Bucerotes (Hornbills, Hoopoes, and Woodhoopoes)
Coraciidae/Brachypteraciidae (Rollers and Ground Rollers)
Primobucconidae
Eocoraciidae and Geranopteridae
Alcediniformes (Bee-Eaters, Kingfi shers, Todies, and Motmots)
Piciformes (Jacamars, Puffbirds, Woodpeckers, and Allies)
Sylphornithidae
Pici
Gracilitarsidae
Cladornithidae
Paleogene Avifaunas: Synopsis of General Aspects
Continental Avifaunas of the Northern Hemisphere
Biogeography
Climatic Cooling and Avifaunal Turnovers
Continental Avifaunas of the Southern Hemisphere
Biogeography
Extant Southern Hemisphere “Endemics” in the Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere
Ecological Interactions
Mammalian Evolution and Terrestrial Avifaunas
The Impact of Passerines on the Diversity of Paleogene Avian Insectivores
Marine Avifaunas
Appendix
References
Index
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