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Thorne K.S., Blandford R.D. Modern classical physics: optics, fluids, plasmas, elasticity, relativity, and statistical physics

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Thorne K.S., Blandford R.D. Modern classical physics: optics, fluids, plasmas, elasticity, relativity, and statistical physics
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017. — 1552 p.
This first-year, graduate-level text and reference book covers the fundamental concepts and twenty-first-century applications of six major areas of classical physics that every masters- or PhD-level physicist should be exposed to, but often isn't: statistical physics, optics (waves of all sorts), elastodynamics, fluid mechanics, plasma physics, and special and general relativity and cosmology. Growing out of a full-year course that the eminent researchers Kip Thorne and Roger Blandford taught at Caltech for almost three decades, this book is designed to broaden the training of physicists. Its six main topical sections are also designed so they can be used in separate courses, and the book provides an invaluable reference for researchers.
Presents all the major fields of classical physics except three prerequisites: classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and elementary thermodynamics
Elucidates the interconnections between diverse fields and explains their shared concepts and tools
Focuses on fundamental concepts and modern, real-world applications
Takes applications from fundamental, experimental, and applied physics; astrophysics and cosmology; geophysics, oceanography, and meteorology; biophysics and chemical physics; engineering and optical science and technology; and information science and technology
Emphasizes the quantum roots of classical physics and how to use quantum techniques to elucidate classical concepts or simplify classical calculations
Features hundreds of color figures, some five hundred exercises, extensive cross-references, and a detailed index
An online illustration package is available to professors
Contents :
List of Boxes
The Geometric Viewpoint on the Laws of Physics
Overview of This Chapter
Foundational Concepts
Tensor Algebra without a Coordinate System
Particle Kinetics and Lorentz Force in Geometric Language
Component Representation of Tensor Algebra
Slot-Naming Index Notation
Particle Kinetics in Index Notation
Orthogonal Transformations of Bases
Differentiation of Scalars, Vectors, and Tensors; Cross Product and Curl
Volumes, Integration, and Integral Conservation Laws
Gauss’s and Stokes’ Theorems
The Stress Tensor and Momentum Conservation
Examples: Electromagnetic Field and Perfect Fluid
Conservation of Momentum
Geometrized Units
Energy and Momentum of a Moving Particle
Bibliographic Note
Inertial Frames, Inertial Coordinates, Events, Vectors, and Spacetime Diagrams
The Principle of Relativity and Constancy of Light Speed
The Interval and Its Invariance
Tensor Algebra without a Coordinate System
Relativistic Particle Kinetics: World Lines, -Velocity, -Momentum and Its Conservation, Force
Geometric Derivation of the Lorentz Force Law
Index Gymnastics
Slot-Naming Notation
Particle Kinetics in Index Notation and in a Lorentz Frame
Lorentz Transformations
Spacetime Diagrams for Boosts
Measurement of Time; Twins Paradox
Wormhole as Time Machine
Directional Derivatives, Gradients, and the Levi-Civita Tensor
Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields; Maxwell’s Equations
Spacetime Volumes and Integration
Conservation of Charge in Spacetime
Conservation of Particles, Baryon Number, and Rest Mass
Stress-Energy Tensor
-Momentum Conservation
Stress-Energy Tensors for Perfect Fluids and Electromagnetic Fields
Bibliographic Note
Newtonian Number Density in Phase Space, N
Relativistic Number Density in Phase Space, N
Distribution Function f (x, v, t) for Particles in a Plasma
Distribution Function Iv/v^ for Photons
Mean Occupation Number n
Thermal-Equilibrium Distribution Functions
Particle Density n, Flux S, and Stress Tensor T
Relativistic Number-Flux -Vector S and Stress-Energy Tensor T
Newtonian Density, Pressure, Energy Density, and Equation of State
Equations of State for a Nonrelativistic Hydrogen Gas
Relativistic Density, Pressure, Energy Density, and Equation of State
Equation of State for a Relativistic Degenerate Hydrogen Gas
Equation of State for Radiation
Evolution of the Distribution Function: Liouville’s Theorem, the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation, and the Boltzmann Transport Equation
Transport Coefficients
Diffusive Heat Conduction inside a Star
Order-of-Magnitude Analysis
Analysis Using the Boltzmann Transport Equation
Bibliographic Note
Distribution Function
Liouville’s Theorem and the Evolution of the Distribution Function
Statistical Equilibrium
Canonical Ensemble and Distribution
General Equilibrium Ensemble and Distribution; Gibbs Ensemble; Grand Canonical Ensemble
Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Distributions
Equipartition Theorem for Quadratic, Classical Degrees of Freedom
The Microcanonical Ensemble
The Ergodic Hypothesis
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
What Causes the Entropy to Increase?
Entropy per Particle
Bose-Einstein Condensate
Black Holes
The Universe
Structure Formation in the Expanding Universe: Violent Relaxation and Phase Mixing
Information Gained When Measuring the State of a System in a Microcanonical Ensemble
Information in Communication Theory
Examples of Information Content
Capacity of Communication Channels; Erasing Information from Computer Memories
Bibliographic Note
Extensive and Intensive Variables; Fundamental Potential
Energy as a Fundamental Potential
Intensive Variables Identified Using Measuring Devices; First Law of Thermodynamics
Euler’s Equation and Form of the Fundamental Potential
Everything Deducible from First Law; Maxwell Relations
Representations of Thermodynamics
The Grand-Potential Representation, and Computation of Thermodynamic Properties as a Grand Canonical Sum
Nonrelativistic van der Waals Gas
Canonical Ensemble and the Physical-Free-Energy Representation of Thermodynamics
Experimental Meaning of Physical Free Energy
Ideal Gas with Internal Degrees of Freedom
Gibbs Ensemble and Representation of Thermodynamics; Phase Transitions and Chemical Reactions
Out-of-Equilibrium Ensembles and Their Fundamental Thermodynamic Potentials and Minimum Principles
Phase Transitions
Chemical Reactions
Fluctuations away from Statistical Equilibrium
Van der Waals Gas: Volume Fluctuations and Gas-to-Liquid Phase Transition
Magnetic Materials
Paramagnetism; The Curie Law
Ferromagnetism: The Ising Model
Renormalization Group Methods for the Ising Model
Monte Carlo Methods for the Ising Model
Bibliographic Note
Random Variables and Random Processes
Probability Distributions
Ergodic Hypothesis
Markov Processes; Random Walk
Gaussian Processes and the Central Limit Theorem; Random Walk
Doob’s Theorem for Gaussian-Markov Processes, and Brownian Motion
Correlation Functions; Proof of Doob’s Theorem
Spectral Densities
Physical Meaning of Spectral Density, Light Spectra, and Noise in a Gravitational Wave Detector
The Wiener-Khintchine Theorem; Cosmological Density Fluctuations
Cross Correlation and Correlation Matrix
Spectral Densities and the Wiener-Khintchine Theorem
Shot Noise, Flicker Noise, and Random-Walk Noise; Cesium Atomic Clock
Information Missing from Spectral Density
Filters, Their Kernels, and the Filtered Spectral Density
Brownian Motion and Random Walks
Extracting a Weak Signal from Noise: Band-Pass Filter, Wiener’s Optimal Filter, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, and Allan Variance of Clock Noise
Shot Noise
Elementary Version of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem; Langevin Equation, Johnson Noise in a Resistor, and Relaxation Time for Brownian Motion
Generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem; Thermal Noise in a Laser Beam’s Measurement of Mirror Motions; Standard Quantum Limit for Measurement Accuracy and How to Evade It
Fokker-Planck Equation
Fokker-Planck for a -Dimensional Markov Process
Optical Molasses: Doppler Cooling of Atoms
Fokker-Planck for a Multidimensional Markov Process; Thermal Noise in an Oscillator
Bibliographic Note
Monochromatic Plane Waves; Dispersion Relation
Wave Packets
Waves in an Inhomogeneous, Time-Varying Medium: The Eikonal Approximation and Geometric Optics
Geometric Optics for a Prototypical Wave Equation
Connection of Geometric Optics to Quantum Theory
Geometric Optics for a General Wave
Examples of Geometric-Optics Wave Propagation
Relation to Wave Packets; Limitations of the Eikonal Approximation and Geometric Optics
Fermat’s Principle
Paraxial Optics
Axisymmetric, Paraxial Systems: Lenses, Mirrors, Telescopes, Microscopes, and Optical Cavities
Converging Magnetic Lens for Charged Particle Beam
Image Formation
Aberrations of Optical Instruments
Gravitational Deflection of Light
Optical Configuration
Lensing by Galaxies
Polarization Vector and Its Geometric-Optics Propagation Law
Geometric Phase
Bibliographic Note
Helmholtz-Kirchhoff Integral
Diffraction by an Aperture
Spreading of the Wavefront: Fresnel and Fraunhofer Regions
Fraunhofer Diffraction
Diffraction Grating
Airy Pattern of a Circular Aperture: Hubble Space Telescope
Babinet’s Principle
Fresnel Diffraction
Rectangular Aperture, Fresnel Integrals, and the Cornu Spiral
Fresnel Diffraction by a Straight Edge: Lunar Occultation of a Radio Source
Circular Apertures: Fresnel Zones and Zone Plates
Paraxial Fourier Optics
Coherent Illumination
Point-Spread Functions
Abbé’s Description of Image Formation by a Thin Lens
Image Processing by a Spatial Filter in the Focal Plane of a Lens: High-Pass, Low-Pass, and Notch Filters; Phase-Contrast Microscopy
Gaussian Beams: Optical Cavities and Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Diffraction at a Caustic
Bibliographic Note
Young’s Slits
Interference with an Extended Source: Van Cittert-Zernike Theorem
More General Formulation of Spatial Coherence; Lateral Coherence Length
Generalization to Dimensions
Michelson Stellar Interferometer; Astronomical Seeing
Temporal Coherence
Michelson Interferometer and Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy
Degree of Coherence; Relation to Theory of Random Processes
Two-Element Radio Interferometer
Multiple-Element Radio Interferometers
Closure Phase
Angular Resolution
Multiple-Beam Interferometry; Etalons
Fabry-Perot Interferometer and Modes of a Fabry-Perot Cavity with Spherical Mirrors
Fabry-Perot Applications: Spectrometer, Laser, Mode-Cleaning Cavity, Beam-Shaping Cavity, PDH Laser Stabilization, Optical Frequency Comb
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Power Correlations and Photon Statistics: Hanbury Brown and Twiss Intensity Interferometer
Bibliographic Note
Basic Principles of the Laser
Types of Lasers and Their Performances and Applications
Ti:Sapphire Mode-Locked Laser
Recording a Hologram
Reconstructing the -Dimensional Image from a Hologram
Other Types of Holography; Applications
Phase-Conjugate Optics
Maxwell’s Equations in a Nonlinear Medium; Nonlinear Dielectric Susceptibilities; Electro-Optic Effects
Resonance Conditions for Three-Wave Mixing
Three-Wave-Mixing Evolution Equations in a Medium That Is Dispersion-Free and Isotropic at Linear Order
Three-Wave Mixing in a Birefringent Crystal: Phase Matching and Evolution Equations
Frequency Doubling
Optical Parametric Amplification
Degenerate Optical Parametric Amplification: Squeezed Light
Third-Order Susceptibilities and Field Strengths
Phase Conjugation via Four-Wave Mixing in CS Fluid
Optical Kerr Effect and Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Fiber
Bibliographic Note
Displacement Vector and Its Gradient
Expansion, Rotation, Shear, and Strain
Stress Tensor
Elastic Moduli and Elastostatic Stress Tensor
Energy of Deformation
Molecular Origin of Elastic Stress; Estimate of Moduli
Elastostatic Equilibrium: Navier-Cauchy Equation
Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio for an Isotropic Material: A Simple Elastostatics Problem
Reducing the Elastostatic Equations to Dimension for a Bent Beam: Cantilever Bridge, Foucault Pendulum, DNA Molecule, Elastica
Elementary Theory of Buckling and Bifurcation
Collapse of the World Trade Center Buildings
Buckling with Lateral Force; Connection to Catastrophe Theory
Other Bifurcations: Venus Fly Trap, Whirling Shaft, Triaxial Stars, and Onset of Turbulence
Reducing the Elastostatic Equations to Dimensions for a Deformed Thin Plate: Stress Polishing a Telescope Mirror
Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates: Connection Coefficients and Components of the Gradient of the Displacement Vector
Simple Methods: Pipe Fracture and Torsion Pendulum
Separation of Variables and Green’s Functions: Thermoelastic Noise in Mirrors
Bibliographic Note
Equation of Motion for a Strained Elastic Medium
Elastodynamic Waves
Longitudinal Sound Waves
Transverse Shear Waves
Energy of Elastodynamic Waves
Waves in Rods, Strings, and Beams
Torsion Waves in a Rod
Waves on Strings
Flexural Waves on a Beam
Bifurcation of Equilibria and Buckling (Once More)
Body Waves and Surface Waves—Seismology and Ultrasound
Body Waves
Edge Waves
Green’s Function for a Homogeneous Half-Space
Free Oscillations of Solid Bodies
Ultrasound; Shock Waves in Solids
The Relationship of Classical Waves to Quantum Mechanical Excitations
Bibliographic Note
The Macroscopic Nature of a Fluid: Density, Pressure, Flow Velocity; Liquids versus Gases
Archimedes’ Law
Nonrotating Stars and Planets
Rotating Fluids
Conservation Laws
The Dynamics of an Ideal Fluid
Momentum Conservation
Bernoulli’s Theorem
Conservation of Energy
Incompressible Flows
Decomposition of the Velocity Gradient into Expansion, Vorticity, and Shear
Navier-Stokes Equation
Molecular Origin of Viscosity
Energy Conservation and Entropy Production
Pipe Flow
Stress-Energy Tensor and Equations of Relativistic Fluid Mechanics
Relativistic Bernoulli Equation and Ultrarelativistic Astrophysical Jets
Nonrelativistic Limit of the Stress-Energy Tensor
Bibliographic Note
Vorticity, Circulation, and Their Evolution
Vorticity Evolution
Barotropic, Inviscid, Compressible Flows: Vortex Lines Frozen into Fluid
Circulation and Kelvin’s Theorem
Diffusion of Vortex Lines
Sources of Vorticity
Low-Reynolds-Number Flow—Stokes Flow and Sedimentation
Motivation: Climate Change
Stokes Flow
Sedimentation Rate
High-Reynolds-Number Flow—Laminar Boundary Layers
Blasius Velocity Profile Near a Flat Plate: Stream Function and Similarity Solution
Viscous Drag Force on a Flat Plate
Boundary Layer Near a Curved Surface: Separation
Nearly Rigidly Rotating Flows—Earth’s Atmosphere and Oceans
Equations of Fluid Dynamics in a Rotating Reference Frame
Geostrophic Flows
Taylor-Proudman Theorem
Ekman Boundary Layers
Discontinuous Flow: Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability
Discontinuous Flow with Gravity
Smoothly Stratified Flows: Rayleigh and Richardson Criteria for Instability
Bibliographic Note
The Transition to Turbulence—Flow Past a Cylinder
Empirical Description of Turbulence
The Role of Vorticity in Turbulence
Weak-Turbulence Formalism
Turbulent Viscosity
Turbulent Wakes and Jets; Entrainment; the Coanda Effect
Kolmogorov Spectrum for Fully Developed, Homogeneous, Isotropic Turbulence
Turbulent Boundary Layers
Profile of a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Coanda Effect and Separation in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Instability of a Laminar Boundary Layer
Flight of a Ball
Rotating Couette Flow
Feigenbaum Sequence, Poincaré Maps, and the Period-Doubling Route to Turbulence in Convection
Other Routes to Turbulent Convection
Extreme Sensitivity to Initial Conditions
Bibliographic Note
Gravity Waves on and beneath the Surface of a Fluid
Shallow-Water Waves
Capillary Waves and Surface Tension
Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) Equation
Physical Effects in the KdV Equation
Single-Soliton Solution
Two-Soliton Solution
Solitons in Contemporary Physics
Rossby Waves in a Rotating Fluid
Sound Waves
Wave Energy
Sound Generation
Radiation Reaction, Runaway Solutions, and Matched Asymptotic Expansions
Bibliographic Note
Equations of Compressible Flow
Basic Equations; Transition from Subsonic to Supersonic Flow
Setting up a Stationary, Transonic Flow
Rocket Engines
Riemann Invariants
Shock Tube
Shock Fronts
Junction Conditions across a Shock; Rankine-Hugoniot Relations
Junction Conditions for Ideal Gas with Constant
Internal Structure of a Shock
Mach Cone
Self-Similar Solutions—Sedov-Taylor Blast Wave
The Sedov-Taylor Solution
Atomic Bomb
Bibliographic Note
Diffusive Heat Conduction—Cooling a Nuclear Reactor; Thermal Boundary Layers
Boussinesq Approximation
Rayleigh-Bénard Convection
Convection in Stars
Double Diffusion—Salt Fingers
Bibliographic Note
Basic Equations of MHD
Maxwell’s Equations in the MHD Approximation
Momentum and Energy Conservation
Boundary Conditions
Magnetic Field and Vorticity
Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion
Hydromagnetic Flows
Linear Perturbation Theory
Z-Pinch: Sausage and Kink Instabilities
The Θ-Pinch and Its Toroidal Analog; Flute Instability; Motivation for Tokamak
Energy Principle and Virial Theorems
Cowling’s Theorem
Kinematic Dynamos
Magnetic Reconnection
Cosmic Rays
Magnetosonic Dispersion Relation
Scattering of Cosmic Rays by Alfvén Waves
Bibliographic Note
Ionization Boundary
Relativistic Boundary
Examples of Natural and Human-Made Plasmas
Debye Shielding
Collective Behavior
Plasma Oscillations and Plasma Frequency
Collision Frequency
The Coulomb Logarithm
Thermal Equilibration Rates in a Plasma
Coulomb Collisions
Anomalous Resistivity and Anomalous Equilibration
Cyclotron Frequency and Larmor Radius
Validity of the Fluid Approximation
Conductivity Tensor
Particle Motion and Adiabatic Invariants
Homogeneous, Time-Independent Electric and Magnetic Fields
Inhomogeneous, Time-Independent Magnetic Field
A Slowly Time-Varying Magnetic Field
Failure of Adiabatic Invariants; Chaotic Orbits
Bibliographic Note
Dielectric Tensor, Wave Equation, and General Dispersion Relation
Two-Fluid Formalism
Dielectric Tensor and Dispersion Relation for a Cold, Unmagnetized Plasma
Plasma Electromagnetic Modes
Langmuir Waves and Ion-Acoustic Waves in Warm Plasmas
Cutoffs and Resonances
Dielectric Tensor and Dispersion Relation
Parallel Propagation
Perpendicular Propagation
Propagation of Radio Waves in the Ionosphere; Magnetoionic Theory
CMA Diagram for Wave Modes in a Cold, Magnetized Plasma
Two-Stream Instability
Bibliographic Note
Distribution Function and Vlasov Equation
Relation of Kinetic Theory to Two-Fluid Theory
Jeans’ Theorem
Formal Dispersion Relation
Two-Stream Instability
The Landau Contour
Dispersion Relation for Weakly Damped or Growing Waves
Langmuir Waves and Their Landau Damping
Ion-Acoustic Waves and Conditions for Their Landau Damping to Be Weak
Stability of Electrostatic Waves in Unmagnetized Plasmas
Penrose’s Instability Criterion
Particle Trapping
N-Particle Distribution Function
BBGKY Hierarchy
Two-Point Correlation Function
Coulomb Correction to Plasma Pressure
Bibliographic Note
Classical Derivation of the Theory
Summary of Quasilinear Theory
Conservation Laws
Generalization to Dimensions
Plasmon Occupation Number n
Evolution of n for Plasmons via Interaction with Electrons
Evolution of f for Electrons via Interaction with Plasmons
Relationship between Classical and Quantum Mechanical Formalisms
Evolution of n via Three-Wave Mixing
Quasilinear Evolution of Unstable Distribution Functions—A Bump in the Tail
Instability of Streaming Cosmic Rays
Parametric Instabilities; Laser Fusion
Solitons and Collisionless Shock Waves
Bibliographic Note
Special Relativity Once Again
Geometric, Frame-Independent Formulation
Inertial Frames and Components of Vectors, Tensors, and Physical Laws
Light Speed, the Interval, and Spacetime Diagrams
Differential Geometry in General Bases and in Curved Manifolds
Nonorthonormal Bases
Vectors as Directional Derivatives; Tangent Space; Commutators
Differentiation of Vectors and Tensors; Connection Coefficients
The Stress-Energy Tensor Revisited
The Proper Reference Frame of an Accelerated Observer
Relation to Inertial Coordinates; Metric in Proper Reference Frame; Transport Law for Rotating Vectors
Geodesic Equation for a Freely Falling Particle
Uniformly Accelerated Observer
Rindler Coordinates for Minkowski Spacetime
Bibliographic Note
History and Overview
Local Lorentz Frames, the Principle of Relativity, and Einstein’s Equivalence Principle
The Spacetime Metric, and Gravity as a Curvature of Spacetime
Free-Fall Motion and Geodesics of Spacetime
Relative Acceleration, Tidal Gravity, and Spacetime Curvature
Newtonian Description of Tidal Gravity
Relativistic Description of Tidal Gravity
Comparison of Newtonian and Relativistic Descriptions
Properties of the Riemann Curvature Tensor
Delicacies in the Equivalence Principle, and Some Nongravitational Laws of Physics in Curved Spacetime
Curvature Coupling in the Nongravitational Laws
The Einstein Field Equation
Weak Gravitational Fields
Newtonian Limit of General Relativity
Linearized Theory
Gravitational Field outside a Stationary, Linearized Source of Gravity
Conservation Laws for Mass, Momentum, and Angular Momentum in Linearized Theory
Conservation Laws for a Strong-Gravity Source
Bibliographic Note
The Schwarzschild Metric, Its Connection Coefficients, and Its Curvature Tensors
The Nature of Schwarzschild’s Coordinate System, and Symmetries of the Schwarzschild Spacetime
Schwarzschild Spacetime at Radii r » M: The Asymptotically Flat Region
Schwarzschild Spacetime at r ~ M
Birkhoff’s Theorem
Stellar Interior
Local Conservation of Energy and Momentum
The Einstein Field Equation
Stellar Models and Their Properties
Embedding Diagrams
The Implosion Analyzed in Schwarzschild Coordinates
Tidal Forces at the Gravitational Radius
Stellar Implosion in Eddington-Finkelstein Coordinates
Tidal Forces at r = —The Central Singularity
Schwarzschild Black Hole
The Kerr Metric for a Spinning Black Hole
The Light-Cone Structure, and the Horizon
Evolution of Black Holes—Rotational Energy and Its Extraction
The Many-Fingered Nature of Time
Bibliographic Note
Equivalence Principle, Gravitational Redshift, and Global Positioning System
Perihelion Advance of Mercury
Gravitational Deflection of Light, Fermat’s Principle, and Gravitational Lenses
Shapiro Time Delay
Geodetic and Lense-Thirring Precession
Gravitational Radiation Reaction
Weak, Plane Waves in Linearized Theory
Measuring a Gravitational Wave by Its Tidal Forces
Gravitons and Their Spin and Rest Mass
Gravitational Waves Propagating through Curved Spacetime
Gravitational Wave Equation in Curved Spacetime
Geometric-Optics Propagation of Gravitational Waves
Energy and Momentum in Gravitational Waves
The Generation of Gravitational Waves
Multipole-Moment Expansion
Quadrupole-Moment Formalism
Quadrupolar Wave Strength, Energy, Angular Momentum, and Radiation Reaction
Gravitational Waves from a Binary Star System
Gravitational Waves from Binaries Made of Black Holes, Neutron Stars, or Both: Numerical Relativity
Frequency Bands and Detection Techniques
Gravitational-Wave Interferometers: Overview and Elementary Treatment
Interferometer Analyzed in TT Gauge
Interferometer Analyzed in the Proper Reference Frame of the Beam Splitter
Pulsar Timing Arrays
Bibliographic Note
Isotropy and Homogeneity
Dark Matter
Cosmological Constant
Seven Ages of the Universe
Particle Age
Nuclear Age
Photon Age
Plasma Age
Gravitational Age
Cosmological Age
Linear Perturbations
Individual Constituents
Solution of the Perturbation Equations
Cosmic Microwave Background
Weak Gravitational Lensing
Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Effect
Inflation and the Origin of the Universe
Dark Matter and the Growth of Structure
The Cosmological Constant and the Fate of the Universe
Bibliographic Note
Name Index
Subject Index
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