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Kearey P., Brooks M., Hill I. An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration

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Kearey P., Brooks M., Hill I. An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration
Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. — ISBN 0632049294.
This new edition of the well-established Kearey and Brooks text is fully updated to reflect the important developments in geophysical methods since the production of the previous edition. .
The broad scope of previous editions is maintained, with even greater clarity of explanations from the revised text and extensively revised figures. Each of the major geophysical methods is treated systematically developing the theory behind the method and detailing the instrumentation, field data acquisition techniques, data processing and interpretation methods. The practical application of each method to such diverse exploration applications as petroleum, groundwater, engineering, environmental and forensic is shown by case histories.
Preface
The principles and limitations of geophysical exploration methods
Introduction
The survey methods
The problem of ambiguity in geophysical interpretation
The structure of the book
Geophysical data processing
Introduction
Digitization of geophysical data
Spectral analysis
Waveform processing
Convolution
Deconvolution
Correlation

Digital filtering
Frequency filters
Inverse (deconvolution) filters

Imaging and modelling
Elements of seismic surveying
Introduction
Stress and strain
Seismic waves
Body waves
Surface waves
Waves and rays

Seismic wave velocities of rocks
Attenuation of seismic energy along ray paths
Ray paths in layered media
Reflection and transmission of normally incident seismic rays
Reflection and refraction of obliquely incident rays
Critical refraction
Diffraction

Reflection and refraction surveying
Seismic data acquisition systems
Seismic sources and the seismic/acoustic spectrum
Seismic transducers
Seismic recording systems

Seismic reflection surveying
Introduction
Geometry of reflected ray paths
Single horizontal reflector
Sequence of horizontal reflectors
Dipping reflector
Ray paths of multiple reflections

The reflection seismogram
The seismic trace
The shot gather
The CMP gather

Multichannel reflection survey design
Vertical and horizontal resolution
Design of detector arrays
Common mid-point (CMP) surveying
Display of seismic reflection data

Time corrections applied to seismic traces
Static correction
Velocity analysis
Filtering of seismic data
Frequency filtering
Inverse filtering (deconvolution)
Velocity filtering

Migration of reflection data
3D seismic reflection surveys
Three component (3C) seismic reflection surveys
4D seismic surveys
Vertical seismic profiling
Interpretation of seismic reflection data
Structural analysis
Stratigraphical analysis (seismic stratigraphy)
Seismic modelling
Seismic attribute analysis

Single-channel marine reflection profiling
Shallow marine seismic sources
Sidescan sonar systems

Applications of seismic reflection surveying
Seismic refraction surveying
Introduction
Geometry of refracted ray paths: planar interfaces
Two-layer case with horizontal interface
Three-layer case with horizontal interface
Multilayer case with horizontal interfaces
Dipping-layer case with planar interfaces
Faulted planar interfaces
Profile geometries for studying planar layer problems
Geometry of refracted ray paths: irregular (non-planar) interfaces
Delay time
The plus–minus interpretation method
The generalized reciprocal method
Construction of wavefronts and ray-tracing
The hidden and blind layer problems
Refraction in layers of continuous velocity change
Methodology of refraction profiling
Field survey arrangements
Recording scheme
Weathering and elevation corrections
Display of refraction seismograms
Other methods of refraction surveying
Seismic tomography
Applications of seismic refraction surveying
Engineering and environmental surveys
Hydrological surveys
Crustal seismology
Two-ship seismic surveying: combined refraction and reflection surveying
Gravity surveying
Introduction
Basic theory
Units of gravity
Measurement of gravity
Gravity anomalies
Gravity anomalies of simple-shaped bodies
Gravity surveying
Gravity reduction
Drift correction
Latitude correction
Elevation corrections
Tidal correction
Eötvös correction
Free-air and Bouguer anomalies
Rock densities
Interpretation of gravity anomalies
The inverse problem
Regional fields and residual anomalies
Direct interpretation
Indirect interpretation
Elementary potential theory and potential field manipulation
Applications of gravity surveying
Magnetic surveying
Introduction
Basic concepts
Rock magnetism
The geomagnetic field
Magnetic anomalies
Magnetic surveying instruments
Introduction
Fluxgate magnetometer
Proton magnetometer
Optically pumped magnetometer
Magnetic gradiometers
Ground magnetic surveys
Aeromagnetic and marine surveys
Reduction of magnetic observations
Diurnal variation correction
Geomagnetic correction
Elevation and terrain corrections
Interpretation of magnetic anomalies
Introduction
Direct interpretation
Indirect interpretation
Potential field transformations
Applications of magnetic surveying
Electrical surveying
Introduction
Resistivity method
Introduction
Resistivities of rocks and minerals
Current flow in the ground
Electrode spreads
Resistivity surveying equipment
Interpretation of resistivity data
Vertical electrical sounding interpretation
Constant separation traversing interpretation
Limitations of the resistivity method
Applications of resistivity surveying
Induced polarization (IP) method
Principles
Mechanisms of induced polarization
Induced polarization measurements
Field operations
Interpretation of induced polarization data
Applications of induced polarization surveying
Self-potential (SP) method
Introduction
Mechanism of self-potential
Self-potential equipment and survey procedure
Interpretation of self-potential anomalies
Electromagnetic surveying
Introduction
Depth of penetration of electromagnetic fields
Detection of electromagnetic fields
Tilt-angle methods
Tilt-angle methods employing local transmitters
The VLF method
The AFMAG method
Phase measuring systems
Time-domain electromagnetic surveying
Non-contacting conductivity measurement
Airborne electromagnetic surveying
Fixed separation systems
Quadrature systems
Interpretation of electromagnetic data
Limitations of the electromagnetic method
Telluric and magnetotelluric field methods
Introduction
Surveying with telluric currents
Magnetotelluric surveying
Ground-penetrating radar
Applications of electromagnetic surveying
Radiometric surveying
Introduction
Radioactive decay
Radioactive minerals
Instruments for measuring radioactivity
Geiger counter
Scintillation counter
Gamma-ray spectrometer
Radon emanometer
Field surveys
Example of radiometric surveying
Geophysical borehole logging
Introduction to drilling
Principles of well logging
Formation evaluation
Resistivity logging
Normal log
Lateral log
Laterolog
Microlog
Porosity estimation
Water and hydrocarbon saturation estimation
Permeability estimation
Resistivity dipmeter log
Induction logging
Self-potential logging
Radiometric logging
Natural gamma radiation log
Gamma-ray density log
Neutron–gamma-ray log
Sonic logging
Temperature logging
Magnetic logging
Magnetic log
Nuclear magnetic resonance log
Gravity logging
Appendix: SI, c.g.s. and Imperial (customary USA) units and conversion factors
References
Index
Color plates
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