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Hall S.M. Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers

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Hall S.M. Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers
6th edition. — Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2018. — 517 p.
Contents:
Preface
Process Safety Management (PSM)
Safe Design Practices
Fire Outside the Vessel
Blocked-In Line
Prevent Backflow
Dilution Purging
Evacuation-Replacement Purging
Causes for Loss of Containment
Dust Explosion Hazards
References
Further Reading
Definition of Scope
Treatment of Uncertainty and Contingency
User Requirements
Block Diagrams
Basis of Design (BOD)
Piping (P&IDs)
Factory Assembled Skids and Modules
Data Sheets and Specifications
Example of a Screening Estimate for a Refinery
Engineering
Reference
Concepts and Terminology
Equipment Design
Flow Sheet Simulation-Continuous Process
Flow Sheet Simulation-Dynamic Process
Discrete Process Simulation
Software List
References
Introduction
General Procedure
Recommended Velocity
Check Valves
Equivalent Length
Friction Factor
Compressible Flow-Isothermal
Compressible Flow-Transmission Equations
Compressible Flow-Adiabatic
Reynolds Number
Darcy Friction Factor
Pressure Drop Due to Friction
Listing
Incompressible Flow (Liquids)
Control Valves
Partially Full Horizontal Pipes
Two-Phase Flow
Homogeneous Model
Comparison of the Two-Phase Models
Further Reading
Introduction
Pressure Vessels and Reactors
Time to Drain a Tank
Emissions From Storage Tanks
Load Cells
Vapor-Liquid Separators
Liquid Surge Volume
Vapor Velocity in the Disengagement Section
Horizontal Separator
Horizontal Drum With Water Separation
Vessel Specifications
Storage tank vents
Further Reading
Blending and Agitation
Basics
Impeller Types
Pumping Number
Power and Power Number
Blending
Newtonian Fluids in Turbulent or Transitional Flow
Shear-Thinning Fluids
Solids Suspension
Terminal Settling Velocity
Impeller Speed and Agitator Power
Gas Dispersion
In-Line Mixers
Mixing Solids
Torque
Shaft Diameter
Impeller Weight
Critical Speed
References
Further Reading
Centrifugal Pumps
Positive Displacement Pumps
Good Design Practice
Pump Testing
System Curves
Sensitivity
Operating Point-and-Pump Selection
Control Valve
Charting Control Characteristics
Flow Control by Changing the Pump Speed
Affinity Laws
Temperature Rise
Suction System NPSH Available
Multiple Centrifugal Pumps in Parallel or Series
Further Reading
Safety Considerations
Compressed Air Systems
Compressor Types
Surge Control
Performance Calculations
Affinity Laws
Power-Reciprocating Compressor
Power-Centrifugal Compressor
Power With P-E Diagram
References
Further Reading
Vacuum Units
Conversion Between Mass Flow, Actual Volume Flow, and Standard Volume Flow
Comparison of Vacuum Equipment
Vacuum Jets
Dry Vacuum Pumps
Steam Supply
Measuring Air Leakage
Instrumentation and Controls
Further Reading
Introduction
Flow Regimes
System Design Procedure
Saltation Velocity
Pressure Drop
Pressure Drop of Carrier Gas
Friction of Solids in Elbows
Feed Systems
Conveyor Piping
Disengagement
References
Cartridge Filters
Vacuum Drum Filters
Filter Presses
Membrane Filters
References
Heat Exchangers
TEMA
Selection Guides
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
Helical Coil Heat Exchangers
Design Recommendations
Process Data
Heat Exchanger Configuration and Area
Determining the LMTD Configuration Correction Factor
Tube Side Film Coefficient
Shell Diameter
Ideal Shell Side Film Coefficient
Shell Side Film Coefficient Correction Factors
Baffle Leakage Effects, Jl
Bundle and Partition Bypass Effects, Jb
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Shell Side Pressure Drop
Fouling Resistances
Thermal Conductivity of Metals
Vacuum Condensers
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers: Air Data
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers: Thermal Design
Air-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
References
Further Reading
Introduction
Selecting the Heat Transfer Fluid
Types of Heat Transfer Fluids
Heat Transfer Coefficient
System Design
Temperature Control
Case: Single-Temperature Central System
Case: Three-Temperature Central System
Physical Properties of Commercial Heat Transfer Fluids
References
Introduction
Safety Considerations
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE)
Activity Coefficients
Establishing the Column Pressure
Dew Point Vapor Feed
Minimum Reflux-Multicomponent
Minimum Stages
Feed Location
Graphical Methods-The McCabe-Thiele Diagram
Tray Efficiency Rules of Thumb
Column Internals-Trays and Packing
Tower Diameter-Souders-Brown Correlation
Control Schemes
Level in the Overhead Receiver
Composition Control
Reboilers
Packed Columns
References
Further Reading
Introduction
Safety Considerations
Hydrocarbon Absorber Design
Inorganic Absorbers
Packing Height for Mass Transfer in Packed Columns
Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient
Further Reading
Basic Nomenclature
Cascade Control
Specifying Instruments to Measure Values
Control Ranges
Drawing Conventions
Artistic Expression
Safety Instrumented Systems
Enclosures: NEMA and IP
Further Reading
General Design Considerations
System Design Considerations
CIP System Design Considerations
Disposable System Economic Evaluation
Disposable System Environmental Life Cycle Assessment
Open or Closed?
Human Error (Procedures, Execution)
Go for Data
Widen the Search
Risk Assessment
Validation
Further Reading
Bioreactor Systems
Clean Gas Supply to Bioreactors
Oxygen Transfer
pH Control
Downstream Processes
Buffer Prep
Liquid Waste Inactivation
References
Introduction
Calculating Steam Cost
Equivalent Cost of Fuels
Steam Traps
Energy Efficient Design for Fractionators
Pinch Analysis
Insulation
References
Electric Motors
Motor Voltages
Motors: Efficiency
Motors: Useful Equations
Hydraulic Motors
Gas Turbines: Performance
Gas Expanders: Available Energy
References
Power Plants
Controls
Thermal Efficiency
Steam Drum Stability
Water Alkalinity
Conductivity Versus Dissolved Solids
Waste Heat
Boiler Feedwater
Blowdown Control
References
Further Reading
Introduction
Safety Considerations
Material and Energy Balance Calculations
Operations and Accessories
Scale Prevention
References
Specifications
Horsepower Per Ton
Refrigerants
Refrigerant Containment
Steam Jet Ejectors
Ammonia Heat Transfer Coefficient
References
Introduction
Risk Analysis
Sustainable Practices
Further Reading
Embodied Energy
Embrittlement
Stress-Corrosion Cracking
Hydrogen Attack
Pitting Corrosion
Creep and Creep-Rupture Life
Naphthenic Acid Corrosion
Thermal Fatigue
Abrasive Wear
Pipeline Toughness
Further Reading
General Troubleshooting Approach
Diagnostic Tools
Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers (PHEs)
Pinch
Cutting Corners
Boilup Control
Tilted Distributor
Hot-Vapor Rules Bypassed
Steam Jet Vacuum Systems
Refrigeration
Further Reading
Startup Management
Startup Cost
Systems Approach
Startup Checklists
Normal Operation
References
Atmospheric Pressure
References
Introduction
Approximate Physical Properties
Vapor-Pressure Equation
Emulsions
Relative Humidity
Gas Diffusion Coefficients
Hydrocarbons in Water
Methanol Injection
Compressibility Factor
Inorganic Gases in Petroleum
Foam Density
Estimating Equivalent Diameter of Solids
Further Reading
Appendix A
Tank Cleaning
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