Lancaster, Ohio: Hothem House Books, 1989. — 146 p. — ISBN 0-961-7041-1-X.Ohio has long been noted as having probably the most, and certainly the most important, prehistoric Indian mounds in the United States of America. But only a small percentage of this state's 11 to 15 thousand mounds have ever been carefully and thoroughly explored. A large number of mounds has entirely been lost to agriculture, roadbuilding, town and city expansions, gravel-pit operations, reservoirs and erosion. Still others were pot-holed into oblivion by curious diggers over the past two centuries. In too many cases, the structure and location of the mounds have gone unrecorded, and whatever artifacts and features found, if any, are now unknown. This book reviews the excavation of 137 mounds, and the artifacts found in them. Of these, 55 mounds are believed to be Adena, and 82 mounds Hopewell. Some mounds—such as the Cemetery Mound, Knox County, the Taylor Mound, Licking County, and the Yant Mound, Stark County — are not here attributed to either culture. The artifact finds, as they were written-up, appear to the author to be neither strongly Adena nor Hopewell. Other mound excavations are not covered in this book because no major artifacts were found, and the mound and construction methods were only generally typical of the Woodland period. Also not covered here, as the great Adena and Hopewell are subject enough for one book, are certain other mounds. These include a few pre-Adena (Late Archaic - Early Woodland) Red Ochre mounds, ca. 1200 BC - 800 BC, and post-Hopewell peoples such as the Cole and Fort Ancient, who put up a scattering of minor mounds. And, the Late Woodland Intrusive Mound Indians sometimes placed their dead and artifacts in the upper portions of pre-existing mounds. Such "added" artifactual information has been screened out. Important as all these and other prehistoric Ohio Indians were, this book focuses on the "Golden Age" of Mound-Building Indians. This work is intended as a partial summary of a 1500-year period in the Eastern Midwest, today's state of Ohio. While many groups built mounds in the Eastern United States, when Mound-Builders (an old but still-valid term) are mentioned the phrase usually means the Adena and Hopewell Indians.
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