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Kyne Dean. Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies in the USA. Managing Risks, Demographics and Response

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Kyne Dean. Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies in the USA. Managing Risks, Demographics and Response
Springer International Publishing, 2017. — 364 p.
There are currently 99 commercial reactors, operating at 61 nuclear power plant sites in the USA. Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are associated with potential core meltdown accidents, which could ultimately lead to catastrophic events. The three main nuclear disasters with the most significant historic and catastrophic impacts are as follows: Three Mile Island in the USA, which occurred in 1979; Chernobyl, Ukraine, in 1986; and Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, in 2011. The Fukushima Daiichi accident, the most recent disaster of the three, demonstrates that the risks of nuclear core meltdown accidents could be magnified by a natural disaster event such as an earthquake, tsunami, or similar natural events.
The development of commercial NPPs in the USA, the impacts of the three historic nuclear power core meltdown accidents, and the problems associated with response and evacuation are discussed. The impacts of the three nuclear core meltdown accidents tire analyzed, coupled with addressing the problems with response and evacuation, from a disaster and emergency management point of view. Monograph captures the geographical locations of the 61 nuclear power plants within the USA and the communities exposed to the potential risks of core melt¬down accident associated with the NPPs. In an event of a nuclear emergency, it is vital to carry out evacuation activities immediately so that the people living around the NPPs could be protected from the potential high-level doses of radiation. The current radiological emergency plan and carefully investigates the process and potential problems that could lead to undermining the effectiveness of immediate response and evacuation are examined. To evacuate people, it is imperative to know where the radioactive plume will go, given the weather con¬ditions on the day the event takes place. Monograph also demonstrates utilization of powerful computer code, namely Radiological Assessment Systems for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) to estimate the places the radioactive plume could be carried away by the given weather conditions during a nuclear core meltdown accident. The chapter provides two simulation exercises at two NPPs, namely the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station in Arizona, and the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station in New York. The simulation exercises utilizing the RASCAL computer code with step-by-step procedures provides fundamental understanding and special technical skills needed to carry out a part of the effective nuclear power emergency management process. Issues related to the nuclear power emergency plan in place are examined. The discussion focuses on issues in terms of policy, priorities, process, participation, evacuation, and recovery. Three options are proposed for minimizing the risks associated with NPPs, suggesting the elimination of all NPPs in operation in USA, transforming inevitable risks to evitable risks, and transforming the current radiological plan into an effective emergency management plan.
The US Commercial Nuclear Power Plants and Their Potential Risks.
U.S. Nuclear Power Development (Discovery of Fission; Self-sustaining Chain Reaction; Peaceful Applications of Atoms; Nuclear Power Reactor with Fission Technology).
U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in Operation (Operating License Requirement; Operating License Process; License Renewal; Current Reactors in Operation).
U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants and Their Potential Risks (Core-Meltdown Risks; Contamination Risks; Nuclear Radiation Risks; Terrorist Attack Risks; Inevitable Risks).
Communities Hosting (US Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.
Setting Boundaries in Host Communities.
Invisible Risks and Unknown Consequences (Nuclear Power Plant Siting and Environmental Justice; Embracing the Low-Level Radiation; Consequence of Constant Exposure to Low-Level Radiation; Incomplete Knowledge of Low-Level Radiation Consequences; Nuclear Power Facilities Living Longer Than Human Average Longevity).
Data and Research Methods (Study Questions; Study Variables; Study Data; Study Methods).
Overall Demographic Composition by Distance.
Hosting Communities in Urban and Non-urban Areas.
Hosting Communities at Individual Nuclear Power Plants.
Demographic Changes in 1990-2000 and 2000-2010.
Nuclear Power Emergencies and Their Management Process.
Disaster and Emergency Management Process.
Nuclear Power Emergency Management Process.
Nuclear Power Emergency and Response.
Projection of Plume Path Dispersion (RASCAL Computer Code; Obtaining RASCAL Computer Code; Installing RASCAL; RASCAL Tools; Projecting Source to Term Dose; Exporting to Shapefile; Overlaying on Other Map Layers).
Protective Action Recommendation.
Protective Action Decisions.
Evacuation.
Simulation of Nuclear Power Plant Core-Meltdown Accidents.
Nuclear Power Plant Core-Meltdown Accidents.
Radioactive Plume Dispersion.
A Scenario of a Core-Meltdown Accident at the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station; Pressurized Water Reactor Core-Damage Accident; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 1; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 2; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 3; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 4).
A Scenario of Core-Meltdown Accident at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant (Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 1; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 2; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 3; Projected Plume Path for Quarter 4).
Projection Limitations.
Issues Associated with the Nuclear Power Emergency.
Policy Issues Associated with Nuclear Power Emergency Response.
Issues Associated with the Process.
Issues Associated with the Priorities.
Issues Associated with the Stakeholders’ Participation.
Issues Associated with the Evacuation.
Issues Associated with the Recovery.
Conclusions.
Dealing with the Inevitable Risks of NPPs.
Eliminating the Inevitable Risks.
Transforming the Inevitable Risks.
Minimizing the Inevitable Risks.
Revisiting Radiological Emergency Planning.
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