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Martov Y., Zinoviev G. Martov And Zinoviev: Head To Head In Halle

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Martov Y., Zinoviev G. Martov And Zinoviev: Head To Head In Halle
London: November publications, 2011. — 230 p. — ISBN-10: 1447809114; ISBN-13: 978-1447809111. With introductory essays by Ben Lewis and Lars T Lih.
"We are on the field of battle. The audience in the hall is divided in two sections: it is as if a knife has cut them sharply in two. Two parties are present." Grigory Zinoviev's description of the Halle congress of the Independent Social Democrats (USPD) in October 1920. Would the USDP and its 700,000 members opt for the Third International or attempt to stay a halfway house floating uneasily between communism and official social democracy? The Halle congress would decide.
The four-hour speech and the significance of Halle. Ben Lewis
War and collapse
The USPD and two revolutions
International realignments
Comintern's 2nd congress
Martov and Zinoviev
Zinoviev: populist Leninist. Lars T Lih
Party and class: civil war (1919-21)
NEP (1922-25)
The peasantry: hegemony and 'who-whom'
Civil war
Opposition in 1925: flip-flop or continuity?
Twelve days in Germany. Grigory Zinoviev
Petrograd, Smolny, November 13 1920
The journey
The congress
The Amsterdam International
Karl Kautsky
'The lower-downs versus the higher-ups'
Martov and the Mensheviks
The agrarian question
The national question
The soviet system
Soviet Russia
Splitting the conference
'An undesirable foreigner' 94
The 'Bolshevik debates' in the Reichstag
The journey back to Russia
Life in Germany 1920
The German workers' movement
World revolution and the Third International. Grigory Zinoviev
Martov in Halle. Lars T Lib
May the USPD be preserved. Julius Martov
Neither reformism nor revolutionism
Why do the Bolsheviks insist on the 21 conditions?
Comintern and Soviet foreign policy
Comintern and Bolshevik terror
The necessity of a new international
Closing words. Grigory Zinoviev
The 21 terms and conditions of affiliation to the Communist International
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