London: November publications, 2011. — 230 p. — ISBN-10: 1447809114; ISBN-13: 978-1447809111. With introductory essays by Ben Lewis and Lars T Lih."We are on the field of battle. The audience in the hall is divided in two sections: it is as if a knife has cut them sharply in two. Two parties are present." Grigory Zinoviev's description of the Halle congress of the Independent Social Democrats (USPD) in October 1920. Would the USDP and its 700,000 members opt for the Third International or attempt to stay a halfway house floating uneasily between communism and official social democracy? The Halle congress would decide.ContentsThe four-hour speech and the significance of Halle. Ben LewisWar and collapse The USPD and two revolutions International realignments Comintern's 2nd congress Martov and Zinoviev History TranslationZinoviev: populist Leninist. Lars T LihParty and class: civil war (1919-21) NEP (1922-25) The peasantry: hegemony and 'who-whom' Civil war NEP Opposition in 1925: flip-flop or continuity? ConclusionTwelve days in Germany. Grigory ZinovievPetrograd, Smolny, November 13 1920 The journey The congress The Amsterdam International Karl Kautsky 'The lower-downs versus the higher-ups' Martov and the Mensheviks The agrarian question The national question Terror The soviet system Soviet Russia Splitting the conference 'An undesirable foreigner' 94 The 'Bolshevik debates' in the Reichstag The journey back to Russia Life in Germany 1920 The German workers' movementWorld revolution and the Third International. Grigory ZinovievMartov in Halle. Lars T LibMay the USPD be preserved. Julius MartovNeither reformism nor revolutionism Why do the Bolsheviks insist on the 21 conditions? Comintern and Soviet foreign policy Comintern and Bolshevik terror The necessity of a new internationalClosing words. Grigory Zinoviev The 21 terms and conditions of affiliation to the Communist International
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