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Prins M.J. Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification and torrefaction

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Prins M.J. Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification and torrefaction
Proefschrift. - Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005. - 164 p.
Докторская диссертация, посвященная термодинамическому анализу эффективности процессов термохимической конверсии твердых топлив.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 The trilemma of energy, economy and environment 1
1.2 Primary energy sources: past, present and future 2
1.3 Biomass gasification 3
1.4 Research objective 4
1.5 Outline of the thesis 4
References 6
Chapter 2 Biomass as a sustainable energy source 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Availability of biomass 7
2.3 Technical suitability of biomass for gasification 8
2.4 Public acceptance of energy from biomass 10
2.5 Conclusions and discussion 11
References 12
Chapter 3 Thermodynamics of gas-char reactions:
first and second law analysis 13
3.1 Introduction 13
3.2 Approach 14
3.3 Energy and exergy calculations 16
3.4 Results 18
3.5 Conclusions and discussion 24
Appendix A: Calculation of chemical equilibrium in a CHO system 25
References 26
Chapter 4 Energy and exergy analyses of the oxidation and gasification
of carbon 27
4.1 Introduction 27
4.2 Methodology 29
4.3 Oxidation of solid carbon with air 34
4.4 Gasification of solid carbon 38
4.5 Conclusions and discussion 47
Appendix B: Definition of exergetic efficiency for gasification processes 48
References 49
Chapter 5 From coal to biomass gasification:
comparison of thermodynamic efficiency 51
5.1 Introduction 51
5.2 Methodology 53
5.3 Gasifier models 58
5.4 Results 61
5.5 Conclusions and discussion 66
Appendix C: Gasification efficiency at equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions 66
References 70
Chapter 6 Exergetic optimisation of a production process of
Fischer-Tropsch fuels from biomass 73
6.1 Introduction 73
6.2 Background 74
6.3 Energy and exergy calculations 78
6.4 Results and discussion 80
6.5 Conclusions and recommendations 87
References 87
Chapter 7 Weight loss kinetics of wood torrefaction 89
7.1 Introduction 89
7.2 Experimental 91
7.3 Results and discussion 92
7.4 Conclusions 102
References 102
Chapter 8 Analysis of products from wood torrefaction 105
8.1 Introduction 105
8.2 Experimental 107
8.3 Results and discussion 108
8.4 Conclusions and recommendations 116
References 116
Chapter 9 More efficient biomass gasification via torrefaction 119
9.1 Introduction 119
9.2 Wood torrefaction 121
9.3 Wood torrefaction combined with gasification 125
9.4 Conclusions and recommendations 133
References 134
Chapter 10 Concluding remarks 137
10.1 Main conclusions 137
10.2 Recommendations for future work 139
10.3 Outlook 141
References 145
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