ISTE Ltd and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010. — 656 p. — ISBN: 9781848210776The mechanical testing of material is an important activity in research and industry. Scientists, engineers and technicians in a large range of domains (such as chemistry, metallurgy, mechanics, physics, polymer science, the rubber industry, aerospace and aeronautical industries, etc.) are interested in the technology used to investigate the mechanical properties of materials. Static and dynamic tests are complementary and used concurrently. Static tests are often used in industry. Dynamic tests, however, are becoming more popular and, surprisingly, in many cases are easier to use than static ones, at least at lower frequencies. Let us take an example concerning the measurement of elastic Young’s modulus or the shear modulus of a steel rod. In (nearly) static tests, glued strain gauges or special micro-displacement transducers are used to measure, the displacement of the sample in two or three directions at once, which enable us to evaluate the strains. With the measurement of applied force or torque, these two moduli are deduced from the basic definitions relating to stress and strain. There are a succession of measurements and calculations from the stress versus strain curves. To obtain such elastic moduli using dynamic tests, evaluation of resonance frequencies only is required; dimensions and geometry of the sample and its weight, as well as boundary conditions, being known. The main interest in dynamic testing, however, resides in characterization of the viscoelastic properties of materials, i.e. the dependency of technical moduli (or relaxation, creep functions) versus the frequency (or time).Constitutive Equations of Materials Elements of Anisotropic Elasticity and Complements on Previsional Calculations Elements of Linear Viscoelasticity Two Useful Topics in Applied Viscoelasticity: Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Materials Formulation of Equations of Motion and Overview of their Solutions by Various Methods Rod Vibrations Torsional Vibration of Rods Bending Vibration of a Rod Longitudinal Vibration of a Rod Very Low Frequency Vibration of a Rod by Le Rolland-Sorin’s Double Pendulum Vibrations of a Ring and Hollow Cylinder Characterization of Isotropic and Anisotropic Materials by Progressive Ultrasonic Waves Viscoelastic Moduli of Materials Deduced from Harmonic Responses of Beams Continuous Element Method Utilized as a Solution to Inverse Problems in Elasticity and Viscoelasticity
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