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Frerking M.E. Crystal Oscillator Design and Temperature Compensation

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Frerking M.E. Crystal Oscillator Design and Temperature Compensation
Springer, 1978. — 240 p. — ISBN 978-94-011-6056-8.
Crystal oscillators have been in use now for well over SO years-one of the first was built by W. G. Cady in 1921. Today, millions of them are made every year, covering a range of frequencies from a few Kilohertz to several hundred Mega­ hertz and a range of stabilities from a fraction of one percent to a few parts in ten to the thirteenth, with most of them, by far, still in the range of several tens of parts per million.Their major application has long been the stabilization of fre­ quencies in transmitters and receivers, and indeed, the utilization of the frequency spectrum would be in utter chaos, and the communication systems as we know them today unthinkable,'without crystal oscillators. With the need to accommodate ever increasing numbers of users in a limited spectrum space, this traditional application will continue to grow for the fore­ seeable future, and ever tighter tolerances will have to be met by an ever larger percentage of these devices.
Foreword.
List of Symbols
.
Introduction.
Basic Oscillator Theory.
Methods of Design.
Experimental Method of Design.
Y-Parameter Method of Design.
Power Gain Method of Design.
Nonlinear Modifications.
Oscillator Frequency Stability.
Temperature Effects of Frequency.
Long-Term Frequency Drift.
Short-Term Frequency Stability.
Quartz Crystal Resonators.
Load Capacitance.
Pin-To-Pin Capacitance.
Resistance.
Rated or Test Drive Level.
Frequency Stability.
Finishing or Calibration Tolerance.
Crystal Aging.
Q and Stiffness of Crystals.
Mechanical Overtone Crystals.
Spurious or Unwanted Modes.
Vibration, Shock, and Acceleration.
Standard Military Crystals.
Specifications and Standards.
Discussion of Transistors.
Transistor Equivalent Circuits.
Y-Parameter Model.
Hybrid π Equivalent Circuit.
Nonlinear Models.
Oscillator Circuits.
Pierce, Colpitts, and Clapp Oscillators.
Pierce Oscillator.
Colpitts Oscillator.
Clapp Oscillator.
Grounded-Base Oscillator.
Gate OscUlators.
Integrated-Circuit Oscillators.
Reproduction Tests for Crystal Oscillators.
Other Topycs.
Crystal Switches.
Pullable Oscillators.
Crystal Ovens.
Squegging, Squelching, or Motorboating.
Spurious Oscillations.
Temperature Compensation.
Analog Temperature Compensation.
Hybrid Analog-Digital Compensation.
Digital Temperature Compensation.
Temperature Compensation with Microprocessors.
Appendixes.
Derivation of the Complex Equation for Oscillation.
Derivation of Y-Parameter Equations for the Pierce Oscillator.
Derivation of Y-Parameter Equations for the Grounded-Base Oscillator.
Derivation of Approximate Equations for the Clapp Oscillator.
Derivation of Approximate Equations for the Pierce Oscillator Analysis.
Derivation of Approximate Equations for the Colpitts Oscillator.
Large-Signal Transistor Parameters.
Large-Signal Transistor Parameters with Emitter Degeneration.
Nonlinear Analysis of the Colpitts Oscillator Based on the Principle of Harmonic Balance.
Mathematical Development of the Sideband Level versus Phase Deviation Equation.
Derivation of Crystal Equations.
Sample Crystal Specification.
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