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Khan M.A., Sheikh A.K., Al-Shaer B.S. Evolution of Metal Casting Technologies: A Historical Perspective

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Khan M.A., Sheikh A.K., Al-Shaer B.S. Evolution of Metal Casting Technologies: A Historical Perspective
Springer Nature, 2017. — 49 p. — ISBN 978331946632-3.
Metalcasting is one of the primitive manufacturing processes which was developed based on fire-using technologies (or pyrotechnologies). Initially, pyrotechnologies have been used to improve workability of stone, make plaster by burning lime, and produce ceramics by firing the clay. Metalworking, however, started 10,000 years ago when the earliest metal objects are found to be wrought rather than cast [1, 10]. Evidences of such metal objects are found in the form of decorative pendants and beads which were formed by hammering native copper. Table 1 summarizes theadvancements in metalworking over these 10,000 years. Metal casting, on the other hand, dates back to 5000 and 3000 B.C. which refers to Chalcolithic period during which metals were melt for castings together with the experimentation of smelting copper. Initial molds were made from smooth textured stones as shown in Fig. 1, resulting in fine cast products which could be witnessed in the museums and archeological exhibitions. Both single and multifaceted (carved on both sides of a rectangular piece of stone) molds were developed from stones to produce castings that are not necessarily flat. However, multifaceted molds were more popular for being portable and economical in terms of utilizing a suitable piece of stone.
Introduction.
Historical Evolution of Metalcasting.
Casting Methods and Processes.
Foundry Practices.
Casting Defects.
Design Considerations in Metal Casting.
Conclusions.
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