Springer, 2011. — 310 p.The shape, extent, and location of spatial objects and environmental phenomena as well as the spatial distribution of physical and environmental characteristics are increasingly being described using three-dimensional (3D) geospatial representations today. In general, 3D modeling does not only affect the dimensionality of the spatial representation but also introduces the thematic structuring and decomposition of objects and phenomena along an additional – often the vertical – axis, leading to models that are typically much higher structured than 2D models. However, building modeling, urban and landscape modeling, modeling of the lithosphere and topography of the Earth, and Earth system modeling all have different requirements on the specific spatial representation and have brought forward a multitude of different 3D modeling frameworks and paradigms. With the additional consideration of temporal aspects another representational dimension is reflected, often being referred to as 4D modeling. One of the most active research fields has been recently the integration of spatial and spatio-temporal aspects together with thematic information from diverse application domains. Semantic 3D modeling addresses the thematic attributation and thematic interrelationships according to multiple domains. Representing the 3D/4D spatio-temporal properties along with the thematic aspects of the different domains is sometimes also called n-dimensional (nD) modeling. The complex structuring of geospatial information according both to spatial representations and semantic representations raises issues of spatio-semantic coherence that the scientific community has started to investigate only recently. Three-dimensional, four-dimensional, and n-dimensional models require efficient methods for the storage, retrieval, analysis, and visualization. Furthermore, standards are required that ensure the lossless exchange of information between the distributed components of spatial data infrastructures. New application domains require the development of new concepts for the representation of 3D space and three-dimensional spatial properties of real world entities and phenomena.Integrated 3D Modeling of Multi-utility Networks and Their Interdependencies for Critical Infrastructure Analysis Modeling Space by Stereographic Rejection Rapid Modelling of Complex Building Interiors Large Scale Constraint Delaunay Triangulation for Virtual Globe Rendering Towards Interoperating CityGML and IFC Building Models: A Unified Model Based Approach Initial Investigations for Modeling Interior Utilities Within 3D Geo Context: Transforming IFC-Interior Utility to CityGML/UtilityNetworkADE Depth Perception in Virtual Reality . Interactive Urban and Forest Fire Simulation with Extinguishment Support 3D Cadastre in the Province of Quebec: A First Experiment for the Construction of a Volumetric Representation 3D Modeling for Mobile Augmented Reality in Unprepared Environment Integrated Representation of (Potentially Unbounded) 2D and 3D Spatial Objects for Rigorously Correct Query and Manipulation Interactive Rendering Techniques for Highlighting in 3D Geovirtual Environments Integration of BIM and GIS: The Development of the CityGML GeoBIM Extension Modelling Three-Dimensional Geoscientific Datasets with the Discrete Voronoi Diagram Challenges in 3D Geo Information and Participatory Design and Decision An Integrated Framework for Reconstructing Full 3D Building Models Towards Semantic 3D City Modeling and Visual Explorations
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