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Clarke, J.F. and Machesney, M. The Dynamics of Real Gases

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Clarke, J.F. and Machesney, M. The Dynamics of Real Gases
London: Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd , 1964. - 419 p.
In the motion of a real gas the disturbances from a uniform, equilibrium state
are transmitted from place to place in the flow field as a result of encounters
between the atoms and molecules of which the gas consists. It is therefore
reasonable to expect that the details of the exchanges which occur in any
molecular encounter will have an effect on the macroscopic behaviour of the gas.
For example, we shall show that the propagation of sound waves through a
gas within which chemical reactions can occur is strongly influenced by the rate
at which such a reaction can proceed, and by the strength of the chemical bonds
which exist, both of which properties are purely microscopic, or molecular,
In this book we shall be directly concerned with the influences of atomic
and molecular structure on the dynamical behaviour of gaseous systems.
This means that we shall have to deal with such hitherto widely separated
topics as, for example, the wave-mechanical prediction of the energy states of
a molecule and the evaluation of the gas velocity at the throat of a converging-
diverging nozzle.
It has not been our intention to attempt a comprehensive and up-to-date
account of the latest developments under the heading of the dynamics of real
gases; indeed the subject's continuing advancement would make such a task
impossible. We have instead selected relevant items from the general field
of study and put them together in such a way that we hope the reader will gain
an understanding of the subject's background and fundamentals, and
therefore be better able to understand the developments which continue to appear
in the technical journals.
Thus the first four chapters give brief accounts of some necessary ideas in
quantum mechanics, phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics, and
the theory of chemical and internal state rate processes, whilst Chapter 5 deals
with the derivation of equations from which a theoretical approach to the
dynamics of real gases can be begun.
Chapters 6 and 7 deal, respectively, with theoretical real gas dynamics and
with some of the more detailed physical processes and ideas which are involved.
The choice of material for these chapters has been largely a subjective one,
reflecting the authors' own interests and experience to a large extent. For
this reason there are several topics which are not dealt with, or are only
mentioned briefly, but which may fairly claim to be included under the
general heading of real gas dynamics. In particular, we do not discuss
combustion and detonation processes or flows involving phase changes;
neither do we go into the question of flows which are influenced by radiation
effects. Several significant developments in the latter field have taken place
during the last two years, whilst the literature survey of topics discussed in this
book only goes up to about the end of 1961. Some of the material is suitable
for inclusion in finals year degree courses, and we hope especially that the book
will prove useful to postgraduate students who are about to embark on
research into one of the many facets of this field of study.
J. F. Clarke
M. McChesney
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