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Moore J.T. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies

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Moore J.T. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies
Wiley, 2010. — 195 p.
Whether studying chemistry as part of a degree requirement or as part of a core curriculum, students will find Chemistry Essentials For Dummies to be an invaluable quick reference guide to the fundamentals of this often challenging course. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only, with discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical two-semester high school chemistry class or a college level Chemistry I course, from bonds and reactions to acids, bases, and the mole. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical chemistry concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learners headed back into the classroom who just need to a refresher of the core concepts. The Essentials For Dummies Series Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
Introduction
About This Book
Conventions Used in This Book
Foolish Assumptions
Icons Used in This Book
Where to Go from Here
Matter and Energy: Exploring the Stuff of Chemistry
Knowing the States of Matter and Their Changes
Solids, liquids, and gases
Solids
Liquids
Gases
Condensing and freezing
Melting and boiling
From solid to liquid
From liquid to gas
Skipping liquids: Sublimation
Pure Substances and Mixtures
Pure substances
Elements
Compounds
Throwing mixtures into the mix
Measuring Matter
Nice Properties You’ve Got There
Energy Types
Kinetic energy
Potential energy
Temperature and Heat
What’s In an Atom?
Subatomic Particles
Centering on the Nucleus
Locating Those Electrons
The quantum mechanical model
The principal quantum number n
The angular momentum quantum number l
The magnetic quantum number ml
The spin quantum number ms
Putting the quantum numbers together
Energy level diagrams
The dreaded energy level diagram
Electron configurations
Valence electrons: Clues about chemical reactions
Isotopes and Ions
Isotopes: Varying neutrons
Ions: Varying electrons
Gaining and losing electrons
Writing electron configurations
Predicting types of bonds
The Periodic Table
Repeating Patterns: The Modern Periodic Table
Arranging Elements in the Periodic Table
Grouping metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
Metals
Nonmetals
Metalloids
Arranging elements by families and periods
Nuclear Chemistry
Seeing How the Atom’s Put Together
Dealing with a Nuclear Breakup: Balancing Reactions
Understanding Types of Natural Radioactive Decay
Alpha emission
Beta emission
Gamma emission
Positron emission
Electron capture
Half-Lives and Radioactive Dating
Calculating remaining radioactivity
Radioactive dating
Breaking Elements Apart with Nuclear Fission Breaking Elements Apart with Nuclear Fission
Mass defect: Where does all that energy come from?
Chain reactions and critical mass
Ionic Bonding
Forming Ions: Making Satisfying Electron Trades
Gaining and losing electrons
Losing an electron to become a cation: Sodium
Gaining an electron to become an anion: Chlorine
Looking at charges on single-atom ions
Seeing some common one-atom ions
Possible charges: Naming ions with multiple oxidation states
Grouping atoms to form polyatomic ions
Creating Ionic Compounds
Making the bond: Sodium metal + chlorine gas = sodium chloride
Figuring out the formulas of ionic compounds
Balancing charges: Magnesium and bromine
Using the crisscross rule
Naming ionic compounds
Dealing with multiple oxidation states
Getting names from formulas and formulas from names
Bonding Clues: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Covalent Bonding
Covalent Bond Basics
Sharing electrons: A hydrogen example
Why atoms have to share
Representing covalent bonds
Comparing covalent bonds with other bonds
Dealing with multiple bonds
Naming Covalent Compounds Made of Two Elements
Writing Covalent Compound Formulas
Empirical formulas
Molecular or true formulas
Structural formulas: Dots and dashes
Basic bonds: Writing the electron-dot and Lewis formulas
Double bonds: Writing structural formulas for C2H4O
Grouping atoms with the condensed structural formula
Electronegativities: Which Atoms Have More Pull?
Predicting the type of bond
Polar covalent bonding: Creating partial charges
Attracting other molecules: Intermolecular forces
Chemical Reactions
Reactants and Products: Reading Chemical Equations
Collision Theory: How Reactions Occur
Hitting the right spot
Adding, releasing, and absorbing energy
Exothermic reactions: Releasing heat
Endothermic reactions: Absorbing heat
Types of Reactions
Combination reactions: Coming together
Decomposition reactions: Breaking down
Single displacement reactions:
Kicking out another element
Using the activity series
Writing ionic and net-ionic equations
Double displacement reactions: Trading places
Precipitation reactions: Forming solids
Neutralization reactions: Forming water
Combustion reactions: Burning
Redox reactions: Exchanging electrons
Balancing Chemical Equations
Balancing the Haber process
Balancing the burning of butane
Knowing Chemical Equilibrium
Backwards and Forwards
Matching rates of change in the Haber process
Constants: Comparing amounts of products and reactants
Le Chatelier’s Principle: Getting More (or Less) Product
Changing the concentration
Changing the temperature
Changing the pressure
Chemical Kinetics: Changing Reaction Speeds
Seeing How Catalysts Speed Up Reactions
Heterogeneous catalysis: Giving reactants a better target
Homogeneous catalysis: Offering an easier path
Electrochemistry: Using Electrons
Transferring Electrons with Redox Reactions
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
Gain of oxygen
Loss of hydrogen
Reduction
Gain of electrons
Loss of oxygen
Gain of hydrogen
One’s loss is the other’s gain
Oxidation numbers
Balancing Redox Equations
Exploring Electrochemical Cells
Galvanic cells: Getting electricity from chemical reactions
Electrolytic cells: Getting chemical reactions from electricity
Having it both ways with rechargeable batteries
Measuring Substances with the Mole
Counting by Weighing
Moles: Putting Avogadro’s Number to Good Use
Defining the mole
Calculating weight, particles, and moles
Finding formulas of compounds
Chemical Reactions and Moles
Reaction stoichiometry
Percent yield
Limiting reactants
A Salute to Solutions
Mixing Things Up with Solutes, Solvents, and Solutions
How dissolving happens
Concentration limits
Saturated facts
Understanding Solution Concentration Units
Percent composition
Weight/weight percentage
Weight/volume percentage
Volume/volume percentage
Molarity: Comparing solute to solution
Diluting solutions to the right molarity
Molarity in stoichiometry: Figuring out how much you need
Molality: Comparing solute to solvent
Parts per million
Acids and Bases
Observing Properties of Acids and Bases
The Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory
Understanding Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
Strong: Ionizing all the way
Hydrogen chloride and other strong acids
Strong bases: Hydroxide ions
Weak: Ionizing partially
Acetic acid and other weak acids
Weak bases: Ammonia
Acid-Base Reactions: Using the Brønsted-Lowry System
Acting as either an acid or base: Amphoteric water
Showing True Colors with Acid-Base Indicators
Doing a quick color test with litmus paper
Phenolphthalein: Finding concentration with titration
Phun with the pH Scale
Clearing the Air on Gases
The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Assuming Things about Gases
Relating Physical Properties with Gas Laws
Boyle’s law: Pressure and volume
Charles’s law: Volume and temperature
Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and temperature
The combined gas law: Pressure, volume, and temp
Avogadro’s Law: The amount of gas
The ideal gas equation: Putting it all together
Ten Serendipitous Discoveries in Chemistry
Archimedes: Streaking Around
Vulcanization of Rubber
Molecular Geometry
Kekulé: The Beautiful Dreamer
Discovering Radioactivity
Finding Really Slick Stuff: Teflon
Stick ’Em Up! Sticky Notes
Growing Hair
Sweeter Than Sugar
Index
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