Osprey Publishing, 2004. — 64 p. — ISBN: 978-1-84176-759-8.The walls of Constantinople are the greatest surviving example of European medieval military architecture in the world. They withstood numerous sieges until being finally overcome by the artillery of Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453, and exist today as a time capsule of Byzantine and Medieval history. This book examines the main defensive system protecting the landward side of the city, which consisted of three parallel walls about 5 miles long. The walls defended the city against intruders, including Attila the Hun, before finally being breached by European knights during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and, ultimately, destroyed by Turkish artillery in 1453.Contents: Introduction The founding of Constantinople. The first fortifications of Constantinople. The Theodosian walls. The later walls. Chronology Design and development The material structure of the walls. The inner wall. The outer wall. The outer terrace and moat. The gates of the city. The sea walls. Repairing and maintaining the walls. Tour of the site From the Marble Tower to the Golden Gate. The Golden Gate. From the Golden Gate to Silivri Kapisi (the Gate of the Spring). From Silivri Kapisi (the Gate of the Spring) to Yeni Mevlevihane Kapisi (the Gate of Rhegium). From Yeni Mevlevihane Kapisi (the Gate of Rhegium) to Porta Xylokerkou (the Gate of the Wooden Circus). The Palace of the Porphyrogenitus (Tekfur Saray). From the Palace of the Porphyrogenitus (Tekfur Saray) to the Golden Horn. The living site Strategic considerations. The walls and the army. The Varangian Guard. Water and food supply. Siege weapons and the defence of the walls. Gunpowder weapons at Constantinople. Greek fire. The supernatural defenders of Constantinople. The role of the citizens. The walls of Constantinople under siege The siege by the Avars and Persians AD 626. The siege by the Arabs AD 674–678. The siege by the Arabs AD 714. The siege by Krum the Bulgar AD. The siege by the Russians AD 860. Attacks and sieges during the First Crusade AD 1097. Attacks and sieges during the the Fourth Crusade AD 1204. The sieges by the Ottomans AD 1396, 1422 and 1453. Aftermath The walls beyond AD 1453. The influence of the walls of Constantinople on medieval military architecture. The walls of Constantinople today Repairs and restoration. Visiting the walls. Bibliography and further reading. Index
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