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Dhome M. (ed.) Visual Perception through Video Imagery

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Dhome M. (ed.) Visual Perception through Video Imagery
Издательство ISTE/John Wiley, 2009, -309 pp.
Artificial vision with a main objective of automatic perception and interpretation of the universe observed by a system containing one or several cameras is a relatively new field of investigation. It leads to a surprisingly large range of problems, and most of these are not currently resolved in a reliable way. Although a general theory is not close to being reached, significant progress has been made recently, theoretically as well as methodologically.
In the visible world, images of luminance are the result of two physical processes: the first one is linked to reflectance properties of the surface of observed objects, while the second one corresponds to the projection of these same objects on the light sensitive plate of the sensor used. From a mathematical standpoint, in order to interpret the observed scene, we must solve an inverse problem, i.e. infer the surface geometry (3D) of objects present, from the purely 2D content of the image or from logged images.
This reputedly complex problem in the context of computer vision is solved by man with surprising ease. However, the human vision system operation is clearly not founded on a single concept. Examining the implemented processes during short or long distance vision is sufficient proof. In the first case, the existing disparity between left and right retinal images makes it possible for man to obtain indepth information by triangulation (stereoscopy) relating to its close environment which is vital in particular to manually capture objects. In the second case, when looking at long distance, or even more so when contemplating a picture, stereoscopy is obviously no help in interpreting the observed scene. Even under these conditions, however (total lack of direct 3D information), man is able to estimate the form and spatial position of objects he observes in the vast majority of cases. This requires mental processes, from 2D information extracted from a luminance image, able to infer 3D information.
These are based on the unconscious use of prior knowledge relating to the principle of retinal image composition and the form of 3D objects surrounding us. The surprising capabilities of the human vision system are because this knowledge is continuously enhanced from early childhood.
In the last few decades, researchers in the artificial vision community have attempted to develop perception systems that would work from data emanating from video cameras. This book presents a few tools emerging from recent advances in the field.
Part 1
Calibration of Vision Sensors
Self-Calibration of Video Sensors
Specific Displacements for Self-calibration
Part 2
Localization Tools
Part 3
Reconstruction of 3D Scenes from Multiple Views
3D Reconstruction by Active Dynamic Vision
Part 4
Shape Recognition in Images
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