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Apt J., Jaramillo P. Variable Renewable Energy and the Electricity Grid

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Apt J., Jaramillo P. Variable Renewable Energy and the Electricity Grid
RFF Press, Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, 2014, 328 pages, ISBN: 0415733014
The integration of renewable energy resources into the electricity grid presents an important challenge. This book provides a review and analysis of the technical and policy options available for managing variable energy resources such as wind and solar power.
As well as being of value to government and industry policy-makers and planners, the volume also provides a single source for scientists and engineers of the technical knowledge gained during the 4-year RenewElec (renewable electricity) project at Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Vermont, Vermont Law School, and the Van Ness Feldman environmental law firm.
The first part of the book discusses the options for large scale integration of variable electric power generation, including issues of predictability, variability, and efficiency. The second part presents the scientific findings of the project. In the final part, the authors undertake a critical review of major quantitative regional and national wind integration studies in the United States. Based on comparisons among these studies, they suggest areas where improvements in methods are warranted in future studies, areas where additional research is needed to facilitate future improvements in wind integration studies and how the research can be put into practice.
Technical and policy options
Variability and its prediction
Strategies to reduce or manage wind and solar variability
Improved planning for renewable energy capacity expansion
New regulations, rate structures, and standards to support variable energy resources
Policies to manage variable generation at increased renewable contribution
Scientific findings
The social costs and benefi ts of wind energy: case study in the PJM Interconnection
Characteristics of wind, solar photovoltaic, and solar thermal power
Forecast error characteristics of wind and of load
Day-ahead wind reserve requirements
Year-to-year variability in wind power
Reduction of wind power variability through geographic diversity
Cycling and ramping of fossil plants, and reduced energy payments
Storage to smooth variability
The cost effectiveness of dynamically limiting wind turbines for secondary frequency regulation capacity
Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind power
Review of large-scale wind integration studies
A critical review of large-scale wind integration studies in the United States
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