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Lalanne C. Mechanical Vibration and Shock Analysis. Mechanical Shock (Volume 2)

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Lalanne C. Mechanical Vibration and Shock Analysis. Mechanical Shock (Volume 2)
Second Edition. — ISTE Ltd + John Wiley & Sons, 2009. — 409 p. — ISBN: 978-1848211230.
This volume considers the shock response spectrum, its various definitions, its properties, and the assumptions involved in its calculation. In developing the practical application of these concepts, the shock shapes or profiles most often used in test facilities are presented, together with their characteristics and indications of how to establish test configurations comparable with those of the real-world, measured environment. Following this analysis there is a case study of how to meet these specifications using standard laboratory equipment, shock machines, electrodynamic exciters driven by a time signal or a response spectrum. Discussion of the limitations, advantages and disadvantages of each method is presented.
The Mechanical Vibration and Shock Analysis five-volume series has been written with both the professional engineer and the academic in mind. Christian Lalanne explores every aspect of vibration and shock, two fundamental and extremely significant areas of mechanical engineering, from both a theoretical and practical point of view. The five volumes cover all the necessary issues in this area of mechanical engineering. The theoretical analyses are placed in the context of both the real world and the laboratory, which is essential for the development of specifications.
Foreword to the Series.
List of Symbols.
Shock Analysis.
Shock, Transient signal, Jerk, Simple (or perfect) shock, Half-sine shock, Versed sine (or haversine) shock,
Terminal peak sawtooth (TPS) shock (or final peak sawtooth (FPS)),
Initial peak sawtooth (IPS) shock, Square shock, Trapezoidal shock, Decaying sinusoidal pulse,
Bump test, Pyroshock; Analysis in the time domain, Fourier transform, Energy spectrum,
Practical calculations of the Fourier transform, The interest of time-frequency analysis.
Shock Response Spectrum.
Main principles, Response of a linear one-degree-of-freedom system, Definitions:
Response spectrum, Absolute acceleration SRS, Relative displacement shock spectrum,
Primary (or initial) positive SRS, Primary (or initial) negative SRS, Secondary (or residual) SRS,
Positive (or maximum positive) SRS, Negative (or maximum negative) SRS, Maximax SRS.
Standardized response spectra, Choice of the type of SRS,
Comparison of the SRS of the usual simple shapes,
SRS of a shock defined by an absolute displacement of the support,
Influence of the amplitude and the duration of the shock on its SRS,
Difference between SRS and extreme response spectrum (ERS),
Algorithms for calculation of the SRS, Subroutine for the calculation of the SRS,
Choice of the sampling frequency of the signal, Example of use of the SRS.
Use of SRS for the study of systems with several degrees of freedom.
Properties of Shock Response Spectra.
Shock response spectra domains, Properties of SRS at low frequencies, Properties of SRS at high frequencies,
Damping influence, Choice of damping, Choice of frequency range,
Choice of the number of points and their distribution, Charts, Relation of SRS with Fourier spectrum
Care to be taken in the calculation of the spectra, Use of the SRS for pyroshocks.
Development of Shock Test Specifications.
Introduction, Simplification of the measured signal, Use of shock response spectra,
Other methods, Interest behind simulation of shocks on shaker using a shock spectrum.
Kinematics of Simple Shocks.
Introduction, Half-sine pulse:
General expressions of the shock motion, Impulse mode, Impact mode, Versed sine pulse, Square pulse,
Terminal peak sawtooth pulse, Initial peak sawtooth pulse.
Standard Shock Machines.
Main types, Impact shock machines, High impact shock machines, Pneumatic machines,
Specific testing facilities, Programmers.
Generation of Shocks Using Shakers.
Principle behind the generation of a signal with a simple shape versus time,
Main advantages of the generation of shock using shakers, Limitations of electrodynamic shakers,
Remarks on the use of electrohydraulic shakers, Pre- and post-shocks,
Incidence of pre- and post-shocks on the quality of simulation.
Control of a Shaker Using a Shock Response Spectrum.
Principle of control using a shock response spectrum, Decaying sinusoid, D.L. Kern and C.D. Hayes’ function,
ZERD function, WAVSIN waveform, SHOC waveform, Use of a fast swept sine,
Problems encountered during the synthesis of the waveforms, Criticism of control by SRS, Possible improvements,
Estimate of the feasibility of a shock specified by its SRS.
Simulation of Pyroshocks.
Simulations using pyrotechnic facilities, Simulation using metal to metal impact,
Simulation using electrodynamic shakers, Simulation using conventional shock machines.
Appendix: Similitude in Mechanics.
Mechanical Shock Tests: A Brief Historical Background.
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