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Hase Y. Handbook of Power Systems Engineering with Power Electronics Applications

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Hase Y. Handbook of Power Systems Engineering with Power Electronics Applications
2nd edition. — John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013. — XXVIII, 768 p. — ISBN 9781119952848.
Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single unified hierarchy.
Key features of this new edition:
Updates throughout the entire book with new material covering applications to current topics such as brushless generators, speed adjustable pumped storage hydro generation, wind generation, small-hydro generation, solar generation, DC-transmission, SVC, SVG (STATCOM), FACTS, active-filters, UPS and advanced railway traffic applications;
Theories of electrical phenomena ranging from DC and power frequency to lightning-/switching-surges, and insulation coordination now with reference to IEC Standards 2010;
New chapters presenting advanced theories and technologies of power electronics circuits and their control theories in combination with various characteristics of power systems as well as induction-generator/motor driving systems;
Practical engineering technologies of generating plants, transmission lines, sub-stations, load systems and their combined network that includes schemes of high voltage primary circuits, power system control and protection;
A comprehensive reference for those wishing to gain knowledge in every aspect of power system engineering, this book is suited to practising engineers in power electricity-related industries and graduate level power engineering students.
Preface.
Acknowledgements.
About the Author.
Introduction.
Overhead Transmission Lines and Their Circuit Constants.
Overhead Transmission Lines with LR Constants.
Stray Capacitance of Overhead Transmission Lines.
Working Inductance and Working Capacitance.
Supplement: Proof of Equivalent Radius req = r1/nwn-1/n for a Multi-bundled Conductor.
Symmetrical Coordinate Method (Symmetrical Components).
Fundamental Concept of Symmetrical Components.
Definition of Symmetrical Components.
Conversion of Three-phase Circuit into Symmetrical Coordinated Circuit.
Transmission Lines by Symmetrical Components.
Typical Transmission Line Constants.
Generator by Symmetrical Components (Easy Description).
Description of Three-phase Load Circuit by Symmetrical Components.
Fault Analysis by Symmetrical Components.
Fundamental Concept of Symmetrical Coordinate Method.
Line-to-ground Fault (Phase a to Ground Fault: 1fG).
Fault Analysis at Various Fault Modes.
Conductor Opening.
Fault Analysis of Parallel Circuit Lines (Including Simultaneous Double Circuit Fault).
Two-phase Circuit and its Symmetrical Coordinate Method.
Double Circuit Line by Two-phase Symmetrical Transformation.
Fault Analysis of Double Circuit Line (General Process).
Single Circuit Fault on the Double Circuit Line.
Double Circuit Fault at Single Point f.
Simultaneous Double Circuit Faults at Different Points f, F on the Same Line.
Per Unit Method and Introduction of Transformer Circuit.
Fundamental Concept of the PU Method.
PU Method for Three-phase Circuits.
Three-phase Three-winding Transformer, its Symmetrical Components Equations, and the Equivalent Circuit.
Base Quantity Modification of Unitized Impedance.
Autotransformer.
Numerical Example to Find the Unitized Symmetrical Equivalent Circuit.
Supplement: Transformation from Equation 5.18 to Equation.
The α-β-0 Coordinate Method (Clarke Components) and its Application.
Definition of α-β-0 Coordinate Method (α-β-0 Components).
Interrelation Between α-β-0 Components and Symmetrical Components.
Circuit Equation and Impedance by the α-β-0 Coordinate Method.
Three-phase Circuit in α-β-0 Components.
Fault Analysis by α-β-0 Components.
Symmetrical and α-β-0 Components As Analytical Tools for Transient Phenomena.
The Symbolic Method and its Application to Transient Phenomena.
Transient Analysis by Symmetrical and α-β-0 Components.
Comparison of Transient Analysis by Symmetrical and α-β-0 Components.
Neutral Grounding Methods.
Comparison of Neutral Grounding Methods.
Overvoltages on the Unfaulted Phases Caused by a Line-to-ground fault.
Arc-suppression Coil (Petersen Coil) Neutral Grounded Method.
Possibility of Voltage Resonance.
Visual Vector Diagrams of Voltages and Currents Under Fault Conditions.
Three-phase Fault: 3fS, 3fG (Solidly Neutral Grounding System, High-resistive Neutral Grounding System).
Phase b–c Fault: 2fS (for Solidly Neutral Grounding System, High-resistive Neutral Grounding System).
Phase a to Ground Fault: 1fG (Solidly Neutral Grounding System).
Double Line-to-ground (Phases b and c) Fault: 2fG (Solidly Neutral Grounding System).
Phase a Line-to-ground Fault: 1fG (High-resistive Neutral Grounding System).
Double Line-to-ground (Phases b and c) Fault: 2fG (High-resistive Neutral Grounding System).
Theory of Generators.
Mathematical Description of a Synchronous Generator.
Introduction of d–q–0 Method (d–q–0 Components).
Transformation of Generator Equations from a–b–c to d–q–0 Domain.
Generator Operating Characteristics and its Vector Diagrams on d- and q-axes Plane.
Transient Phenomena and the Generator’s Transient Reactances.
Symmetrical Equivalent Circuits of Generators.
Laplace-transformed Generator Equations and the Time Constants.
Measuring of Generator Reactances.
Relations Between the d–q–0 and a–b–0 Domains.
Detailed Calculation of Generator Short-circuit Transient Current under Load Operation.
Supplement.
Apparent Power and its Expression in the 0–1–2 and d–q–0 Domains.
Apparent Power and its Symbolic Expression for Arbitrary Waveform Voltages and Currents.
Apparent Power of a Three-phase Circuit in the 0–1–2 Domain.
Apparent Power in the d–q–0 Domain.
Generating Power and Steady-State Stability.
Generating Power and the P–d and Q–d Curves.
Power Transfer Limit between a Generator and a Power System Network.
Supplement: Derivation of Equation 12.17 from Equations 12.15st and.
The Generator as Rotating Machinery.
Mechanical (Kinetic) Power and Generating (Electrical) Power.
Kinetic Equation of the Generator.
Mechanism of Power Conversion from Rotor Mechanical Power to Stator Electrical Power.
Speed Governors, the Rotating Speed Control Equipment for Generators.
Transient/Dynamic Stability, P–Q–V Characteristics and Voltage Stability of a Power System.
Steady-state Stability, Transient Stability, Dynamic Stability.
Mechanical Acceleration Equation for the Two-generator System and Disturbance Response.
Transient Stability and Dynamic Stability (Case Study).
Four-terminal Circuit and the Pd Curve under Fault Conditions and Operational Reactance.
PQV Characteristics and Voltage Stability (Voltage Instability Phenomena).
Supplement 1: Derivation of DV/DP, DV/DQ Sensitivity Equation (Equation 14.20 from Equation 14.19).
Supplement 2: Derivation of Power Circle Diagram Equation (Equation 14.31 from Equation 14.18 s).
Generator Characteristics with AVR and Stable Operation Limit.
Theory of AVR, and Transfer Function of Generator System with AVR.
Duties of AVR and Transfer Function of Generator + AVR.
Response Characteristics of Total System and Generator Operational Limit.
Transmission Line Charging by Generator with AVR.
Supplement 1: Derivation of ed (s), eq(s) as Function of ef (s) (Equation 15.9 from Equations 15.7 and 15.8).
Supplement 2: Derivation of eG(s) as Function of ef (s) (Equation 15.10 from Equations 15.8 and 15.9).
Operating Characteristics and the Capability Limits of Generators.
General Equations of Generators in Terms of p–q Coordinates.
Rating Items and the Capability Curve of the Generator.
Leading Power-factor (Under-excitation Domain) Operation, and UEL Function by AVR.
V–Q (Voltage and Reactive Power) Control by AVR.
Thermal Generators’ Weak Points (Negative-sequence Current, Higher Harmonic Current, Shaft-torsional Distortion).
General Description of Modern Thermal/Nuclear TG Unit.
Supplement: Derivation of Equation 16.14 from Equation.
R–X Coordinates and the Theory of Directional Distance Relays.
Protective Relays, Their Mission and Classification.
Principle of Directional Distance Relays and R–X Coordinates Plane.
Impedance Locus in R–X Coordinates in Case of a Fault (under No-load Condition).
Impedance Locus under Normal States and Step-out Condition.
Impedance Locus under Faults with Load Flow Conditions.
Loss of Excitation Detection by DZ-Relays.
Supplement 1: The Drawing Method for the Locus () of Equation.
Supplement 2: The Drawing Method for () of Equation.
Travelling-Wave (Surge) Phenomena.
Theory of Travelling-wave Phenomena along Transmission Lines (Distributed-constants Circuit).
Approximation of Distributed-constants Circuit and Accuracy of Concentrated-constants Circuit.
Behaviour of Travelling Wave at a Transition Point.
Surge Overvoltages and their Three Different and Confusing Notations.
Behaviour of Travelling Waves at a Lightning-strike Point.
Travelling-wave Phenomena of Three-phase Transmission Line.
Line-to-ground and Line-to-line Travelling Waves.
The Reflection Lattice and Transient Behaviour Modes.
Supplement 1: General Solution Equation 18.10 for Differential Equation.
Supplement 2: Derivation of Equation 18.19 from Equation.
Switching Surge Phenomena by Circuit-Breakers and Line Switches.
Transient Calculation of a Single-Phase Circuit by Breaker Opening.
Calculation of Transient Recovery Voltages Across a Breaker's Three Poles by 3fS Fault Tripping.
Fundamental Concepts of High-voltage Circuit-breakers.
Current Tripping by Circuit-breakers: Actual Phenomena.
Overvoltages Caused by Breaker Closing (Close-switching Surge).
Resistive Tripping and Resistive Closing by Circuit-breakers.
Switching Surge Caused by Line Switches (Disconnecting Switches).
Supplement 1: Calculation of the Coefficients k1k4 of Equation.
Supplement 2: Calculation of the Coefficients k1k6 of Equation.
Overvoltage Phenomena.
Classification of Overvoltage Phenomena.
Fundamental (Power) Frequency Overvoltages (Non-resonant Phenomena).
Lower Frequency Harmonic Resonant Overvoltages.
Switching Surges.
Overvoltage Phenomena by Lightning Strikes.
Insulation Coordination.
Overvoltages as Insulation Stresses.
Fundamental Concept of Insulation Coordination.
Countermeasures on Transmission Lines to Reduce Overvoltages and Flashover.
Overvoltage Protection at Substations.
Insulation Coordination Details.
Transfer Surge Voltages Through the Transformer, and Generator Protection.
Internal High-frequency Voltage Oscillation of Transformers Caused by Incident Surge.
Oil-filled Transformers Versus Gas-filled Transformers.
Supplement: Proof that Equation 21.21 is the Solution of Equation.
Waveform Distortion and Lower Order Harmonic Resonance.
Causes and Influences of Waveform Distortion.
Fault Current Waveform Distortion Caused on Cable Lines.
Power Cables and Power Cable Circuits.
Power Cables and Their General Features.
Distinguishing Features of Power Cable.
Circuit Constants of Power Cables.
Metallic Sheath and Outer Covering.
Cross-bonding Metallic-shielding Method.
Surge Voltages: Phenomena Travelling Through a Power Cable.
Surge Voltages Phenomena on Cable and Overhead Line Jointing Terminal.
Surge Voltages at Cable End Terminal Connected to GIS.
Approaches for Special Circuits.
On-load Tap-changing Transformer (LTC Transformer).
Phase-shifting Transformer.
Woodbridge Transformer and Scott Transformer.
Neutral Grounding Transformer.
Mis-connection of Three-phase Orders.
Theory of Induction Generators and Motors.
Introduction of Induction Motors and Their Driving Control.
Theory of Three-phase Induction Machines (IM) with Wye-connected Rotor Windings.
Squirrel-cage Type Induction Motors.
Supplement 1: Calculation of Equations (25.17), (25.18), and (25.19).
Power Electronic Devices and the Fundamental Concept of Switching.
Power Electronics and the Fundamental Concept.
Power Switching by Power Devices.
Snubber Circuit.
oltage Conversion by Switching.
Power Electronic Devices.
Mathematical Backgrounds for Power Electronic Application Analysis.
Power Electronic Converters.
AC to DC Conversion: Rectifier by a Diode.
AC to DC Controlled Conversion: Rectifier by Thyristors.
DC to DC Converters (DC to DC Choppers).
DC to AC Inverters.
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) Control of Inverters.
AC to AC Converter (Cycloconverter).
Supplement: Transformer Core Flux Saturation (Flux Bias Caused by DC Biased Current Component).
Power Electronics Applications in Utility Power Systems and Some Industries.
Introduction.
Motor Drive Application.
Generator Excitation System.
(Double-fed) Adjustable Speed Pumped Storage Generator-motor Unit.
Wind Generation.
Small Hydro Generation.
Solar Generation (Photovoltaic Generation).
Static Var Compensators (SVC: Thyristor Based External Commutated Scheme).
Active Filters.
High-Voltage DC Transmission (HVDC Transmission).
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) Technology.
Railway Applications.
UPSs (Uninterruptible Power Supplies).
Appendixes:
Mathematical Formulae.
Matrix Equation Formulae.
Analytical Methods Index.
Components Index.
Subject Index.
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