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Guerrero-Lemus R., Martínez-Duart J.M. Renewable Energies and CO2

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Guerrero-Lemus R., Martínez-Duart J.M. Renewable Energies and CO2
Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends - 2012 Edition. — Springer-Verlag London, 2013. XXIII, 373 p. 214 illus., 210 illus. in color. — ISBN 978-1-4471-4384-0, ISBN 978-1-4471-4385-7 (eBook), DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-4385-7 — (Lecture Notes in Energy 3).
Provides up-to-date numerical data related to efficiencies, energy capacities, lifetimes, production costs, energy payback ratios, carbon emissions, patents and literature statistics
Applies data to project future grid and fuel parity scenarios, and future technology tendencies in the different areas
Open to contibutions for annual updates
Providing up-to-date numerical data across a range of topics related to renewable energy technologies, Renewable Energies and CO2 offers a one-stop source of key information to engineers, economists and all other professionals working in the energy and climate change sectors. The most relevant up-to-date numerical data are exposed in 201 tables and graphs, integrated in terms of units and methodology, and covering topics such as energy system capacities and lifetimes, production costs, energy payback ratios, carbon emissions, external costs, patents and literature statistics.
The data are first presented and then analyzed to project potential future grid, heat and fuel parity scenarios, as well as future technology tendencies in different energy technological areas. Innovative highlights and descriptions of preproduction energy systems and components from the past four years have been gathered from selected journals and international energy departments from G20 countries.
As the field develops, readers are invited and encouraged to contact the authors for feedback and comments. The ongoing data collection and analysis will be used – after proper acknowledgment of contributors - to develop new editions. In this way, it is ensured that Renewable Energies and CO2 will remain an up-to-date resource for all those working with or involved in renewable energy, climate change, energy storage, carbon capture and smart grids.
Content Level » Research
Keywords » Carbon capture and storage - Carbon emissions - Energy costs - Renewable energy technologies - Smart grids
Related subjects » Energy Technology - Renewable and Green Energy - Sustainable Development
Contents
Introduction
Executive Summary
References
Renewable Energy and CO2: Current Status and Costs
The Current Use and Theoretical Potential of Conventional and Renewable Energies
Evolution of CO2 Emission Rates and Influence on Climate Change
Fuel and Electricity Production Costs from Renewable Energy Sources
Status of the Renewable Energy and Associated Technologies
CO2 Emissions, Energy Payback and Other Environmental Costs
References
Renewable Fuels and Carriers
Biomass
Overview
State of the Art
Energy Crops
Cultivation Techniques
Harvesting, Storage and Transportation
Combustion
Co-firing
Gasification
Anaerobic Digestion
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Energy Crops
Cultivation Techniques
Harvesting, Storage and Transportation
Combustion
Co-firing
Gasification
Anaerobic Digestion
Pre-production Highlights 2009–2011
The World Largest Biomass Power Plant
New Strategies to Increase Biogas Production from Wastewater
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
BIGCC to Produce Electricity and Heat in Ethanol Plants
Electricity Production from Anaerobic Digestion in Microbial Fuel Cells
Using Charcoal Production to Store CO2 and Produce Heat
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Biofuels
Overview
State of the Art
First-Generation Bioethanol
First-Generation Biodiesel
Lignocellulosic Bioethanol (Second Generation)
Second-Generation Biodiesel
Hydrogen from Biomass (Third Generation)
Biodiesel from Microalgae (Third Generation)
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
First-Generation Bioethanol
First-Generation Biodiesel
Second-Generation Bioethanol
Second-Generation Biodiesel
Hydrogen from Biomass (Third Generation)
Biodiesel from Microalgae (Third Generation)
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
Danish Companies Novozymes and Nanisco Announce Breakthroughs in Enzymes to Produce
Ethanol from Cellulose
ExxonMobil Enters the Race to Produce Biofuel from Microalgae
Genetically Modified Microbes Produce Biodiesel
Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Plant of Abengoa Bioenergy in Kansas, USA (2010)
Producing Biodiesel at Home
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
New Procedure to Produce Jet Fuel from Waste Biomass
Direct Conversion of CO2 Into Biofuels
Design of an Improved Process for the Use of Pyrolysis Oils
Genetic Modification of E. coli Converts Seaweed into Ethanol
Discoveries on Isobutanol and on Ethanol Production in Microorganisms
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Hydrogen Production
Overview
State of the Art
Reforming
Gasification
Water Electrolysis
Thermolysis
Thermochemical Cycles
Biochemical Fermentation
Photocatalysis and Photoelectrolysis
Hydrogen Storage
Market Penetration
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, Carbon Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Reforming
Gasification
Electrolysis
Thermolysis
Biochemical Fermentation
Photocatalysis and Photoelectrolysis
Thermochemical Cycles
Hydrogen Storage
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
First World Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Station in Orange County (USA)
The Commercial Vehicle That Travels More Kilometres Driven by Hydrogen
Waste Treatment Plant Capable of Producing Energy with Hydrogen
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
Thermochemical Cycles for Water Dissociation in Two
Stages Using Fe3O4 and NiFe2O4 Particles on ZrO2 Porous Ceramic Devices
Production of Hydrogen from Water by the Effect of Light on Polymeric Carbon Nitride
Production of Hydrogen from Virus
Artificial Leaves That Produce Hydrogen
Improvement of the Kinetics for the Water Electrolysis
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Power from Renewable Sources
Photovoltaics (PV)
Overview
State of the Art
Crystalline Silicon Cells
Thin Film Cells
Third-Generation Solar Cells
Organic Solar Cells
Efficiencies and Required Areas
Market Penetration
Current and Future Costs Scenarios
Energy Payback, Carbon Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Thin Film Solar Cells
Third-Generation Solar Cells
Organic Solar Cells
Other Future Trends
Pre-Production Highlights (2009–2011)
Transport Driven by Photovoltaic Energy
PV Plants Without Feed-in Tariff Are Planning in Spain in
Innovation Highlights (2009–2011)
The New Efficiency Record for Solar Cells Reached 43.5 %
Advances in High-Efficiency GaAs Thin Films Manufacturing on Flexible Plastic Substrates
Dye-Sensitised Solar Cell Exceeds 12 % Efficiency
Peak External Photocurrent Quantum Efficiency Exceeding 100 %
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Concentrated Solar Power
Overview
State of the Art
Parabolic Troughs
Tower Systems
Parabolic Dish Concentrators (dishes)
Linear Fresnel Systems
Thermal Storage
Water Consumption
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Parabolic Trough
Tower System
Parabolic Dish
Linear Fresnel Systems
Thermal Storage
General Technology Trends
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
DESERTEC Project to Feed Europe with Electricity from Sahara Desert
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
A new Computationally Efficient Model and Biomimetic Layout for Heliostat Field Optimisation
Thermochemical Dissociation of CO2 and H2O Using non-Stoichiometric Cerium
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Wind Power
Overview
State of the Art
On-Shore Turbines
Microturbines and Urban Turbines
Wind Energy Storage Using Compressed Air (CAES)
Off-Shore Wind Turbines
Off-Shore Foundations
Wind Resources
Off-Shore Logistics
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Turbine Costs and Total Costs
Operation and Maintenance Costs (O&M)
Cost of Electricity
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
On-Shore Turbines
Microturbines and Urban Turbines
Wind Energy Storage Using Compressed Air (CAES)
Off-Shore Turbines
Off-Shore Foundations
Wind Resources
Off-Shore Logistics
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
Alpha Ventus Off-Shore Wind Farm Come Into Operation in the North Sea
The world’s largest wind turbine
Sensors to Analyse the Wind Before Reaching the Turbine
Multi-Megawatts Direct-Drive Turbines
nnovation Highlights 2009–2011
Nacelles Located at Ground Level
Concrete-Steel Hybrid Towers of 100–150 m
World Largest Floating Wind Turbine
Global Off-Shore Wind Speed Increases
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Hydropower
Overview
State of the Art
Turbines
Large Hydropower Systems
Small Hydropower Systems
Run-of-River Systems
Systems with Reduced Environmental Footprint
Water Management Systems
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Turbines
Large Hydropower Systems
Small Hydropower Systems
Run-of-River Systems
Systems with Reduced Environmental Footprint
Water Management Systems
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
The Three Gorges Dam Starts Operating at Full Capacity But Problems Arise
Superconductors Applied to a Run-of-River System
New Tunnel to Increase Power Capacity in Niagara Falls
nnovation Highlights 2009–2011
Superconducting Technology for Hydropower Generators
Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol Presented
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Geothermal Energy
Overview
State of the Art
Flash Technology
Enhanced Geothermal Systems
Low Temperature Resources Via Binary Plant Technology
Geothermal Heat Pumps
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Flash Technology
Enhanced Geothermal Systems
Low Temperature Resources Via Binary Plant Technology
Geothermal Heat Pumps
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
EGS Promoting Projects in Australia
Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity
Associated with EGS
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
First Steps to Use CO2 to Improve the Extraction of Geothermal Heat
Use of Spallation Systems
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Ocean Energy
Overview
State of the Art
Waves
Currents
Tidal Range
Salinity Gradients
Temperature Gradients
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Waves
Currents
Tidal Range
Salinity Gradients
Temperature Gradients
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
Waves: Starting the Oyster Device for Harnessing Wave Energy
Tidal Currents: The First Commercial Device
That Exploits Tidal Currents in Open Sea Comes Into Operation
Tidal Range: Sihwa Tidal Range Plant Starts Into Operation
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
Tidal Range: Feasibility Studies to Exploit the Range of Tides in the Severn Estuary
Salinity Gradients: The First Power Plant Based on Osmosis Begins to Operate in Norway
Publications and Patents Statistics
References
Nuclear Fusion
Overview
State of the Art
Magnetic Confinement Fusion
Inertial Confinement Fusion
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Magnetic Confinement Fusion
Inertial Confinement Fusion
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
First Tests at NIF
Uncertainty in the Financing of ITER
Different Circumstances for ITER Facilities in Japan
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
Some Scientists Still Insist on Cold and Bubble Fusion
NIF Researchers and Ignition
A Team of Researchers Reignite the JET Reactor
The Last of the Five Field-Period Module of the W7-X Stellarator Assembled
Publications and Patents Analysis
References
Storage and Management
Solar Heating and Cooling
Overview
State of the Art
Materials
Cooling and Air Conditioning
Long-Term Storage
Solar Thermal Collectors
Control Systems
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Materials
Cooling and Air Conditioning
Long-Term Storage
Solar Thermal Collectors
Control Systems
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
Thermotropic Polyamide Protection Against Overheating
Gasification of Biomass Energy from the Sun
The World’s Largest Solar District Heating System
Database of Architecturally Appealing Solar Thermal Systems Integrated Into Buildings
Solar Thermal Energy for Enhanced Oil Recovery
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
Solar Thermal Heat Storage in NaOH
Non-Rectangular Collector Design
Thermionic-Based Solar Energy Converter
A New Binderless Sorption Material for Thermochemical Storage
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Fuel Cells
Overview
State of the Art
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Alkaline Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Stages of Development
Current and Future Costs Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Alkaline Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Other Future Aspects
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
Fuel Cell Fed with Blood Sugar
World’s First Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Station Commissioned
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
Advances in the Substitution or Optimisation of Pt-Based Catalysts for Fuel Cells
The Impact of Anode Microstructure on the Properties of the Solid-State Fuel Cell
High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Derived from Polyaniline, Iron
and Cobalt
Water and Air Produce Energy
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Electricity Storage
Overview
Current Technology
Batteries Technology (Lead–Acid, Metal–Air, Sodium–Sulphur, Redox Flow, Li-Ion,
ZnBr and NiMH)
Compressed Air Storage
Flywheels
Storage in Superconductors
Electrochemical Capacitors
Pumped Hydropower Systems
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Payback Energy, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Batteries
Compressed Air Storage
Flywheels
Storage in Superconductors
Electrochemical Capacitors
Pumped Hydropower Systems
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
Three New World Records for the PV and Li-Ion Batteries Powered Aircraft
Batteries Also for Building Cars
Production of Planar Li-Ion Batteries with Durable Nanostructured Films
Off-Shore Energy Bags
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
Record with Supercapacitor Energy Storage
New Material for Ultrafast Discharge Batteries
Concrete Storage Spheres on the Seafloor
Hopes from Aluminium to Replace Lithium as Core Raw Material in Batteries
Ultra-Thin Flexible Battery With the Highest Charge Capacity Reported for Thin Film
Batteries
A New Battery That Can Be Fully Recharged in Minutes
Laser Scribing of High-Performance and Flexible Graphene-Based Electrochemical Capacitors
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Smart Grids and Supergrids
Overview
State of the Art
Smart Grid Components
Smart Grid Control Systems
Smart Grid Communications
Supergrids
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Energy Payback, CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Smart Grid Components
Smart Grid Control Systems
Smart Grid Communications
Supergrids
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011
Instant Record in Wind Power, Hourly and Daily
ENTSO-E Electrical Systems Bordering Increase Electrical Exchange in
SuperPower, Inc. Breaks Records in High-Temperature Superconducting Transmission of Power
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
Agreement Signed Between Nine European Countries to Build the First Supergrid
DESERTEC Project Begins
Project TWENTIES Starts
Record Super-Thin Superconducting Cable
Publications and Patents Statistics
References
Carbon Capture and Storage
Overview
The State of the Art
Post-Combustion Capture
Pre-Combustion Capture
Oxy-Fuelling
Chemical Looping Combustion
Transport of CO2
CO2 Storage
Stages of Development
Current Costs and Future Scenarios
Capture and Storage Costs
CO2 Emissions and External Costs
Future Technology Trends
Pre-Combustion Capture
Post-Combustion Capture
Oxy-Fuelling
Chemical Looping
Transport of CO2
CO2 Storage
Pre-Production Highlights 2009–2011a
Entry Into Operation of the First CCS System
Integrated in a Power Plant
Entry Into Operation of the First China’s CCS
Facility
Huaneng Group Opened a CCS Facility That Claims a USD 30–35/t CO2
Innovation Highlights 2009–2011
CCS Through Nanotubes
Metal-Organic Frameworks as New Materials for the Capture of CO
FutureGen Project: Final Adoption in June
Statistics of Publications and Patents
References
Index
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