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Scala F. (ed.) Fluidized Bed Technologies for Near-Zero Emission Combustion and Gasification

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Scala F. (ed.) Fluidized Bed Technologies for Near-Zero Emission Combustion and Gasification
Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013. XXXI, 1033 p. — ISBN 978-0-85709-541-1 (print).
Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is an advanced technique for fuel flexible, high efficiency and low emission power generation. In these systems, fuels are combusted as a fluidized bed suspended by jets of air with sorbents that remove harmful emissions such as NOx, SOx and CO2. The editor and contributors provide an up-to-date, comprehensive book on fluidized bed (FB)combustion/gasification technology, with a focus on new emerging carbon capture technologies.
Chapters 1-6 present a general overview of fluidization technology with some historical details, a description of particle characterization methods and particle behavior in a fluidized system, and an overall picture of the properties of bubbling and circulating FBs. The second section (chapters 7-13) provides information on the fundamental research being done on FB combustion and gasification.
In contrast to the first two parts, which have a more fundamental character, the third section (chapters 14-18) is more practically oriented and discusses advances in atmospheric and pressurized boilers for coal, biomass, and waste. Chapters also detail the characteristics of the FB gasification technology and the most recent measurement techniques in FB systems. Part four (chapters 19-22) focus on the emerging carbon capture technologies involving fluidized bed systems, namely oxy-fired combustion, chemical looping combustion, calcium looping for de-carbonation of flue gas, and sorption-enhanced gasification. The book's concluding chapter 23 extends the concepts described in previous parts to other application of FB technology (both in chemical and physical processes) not involving combustion and gasification.
Contents
Introduction to Fluidization Science and Technology
Overview of fluidization science and fluidized bed technologies
M Horio, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan
Introduction
Fluidization as a fundamental phenomenon and its formulation
Historical development of fluidization technology
Historical development of fluidization science
Conclusion and future trends
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix: Notation
Particle characterization and behaviour relevant to fluidized bed combustion and gasification systems
D Wang and L-S Fan, The Ohio State University, USA
Introduction
Characterization of particles
Fluid-particle interactions
Particle-particle interactions
Particle fluidization characteristics
Particle property effects in a novel combustion system
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
References
Appendix: Nomenclature
Properties of stationary (bubbling) fluidised beds relevant to combustion and gasification systems
J S Dennis, University of Cambridge, UK
ntroduction
Fundamental aspects
Modelling bubbling fluidised bed reactors
Conclusion and future trends
References
Appendix: Nomenclature
Properties of circulating fluidized beds relevant to combustion and gasification systems
J R Grace and C J Lim, University of British Columbia, Canada
Introduction
Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) configurations
CFB hydrodynamics
Mixing in CFBs
Heat transfer in CFBs
Reactor modeling
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Notation
Heat and mass transfer in fluidized bed combustion and gasification systems
F Di Natale and R Nigro, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy, and F Scala, National Research Council, Italy
Heat transfer: an introduction
Surface-bed heat transfer: introduction and experimental evidence
Surface-bed heat transfer modelling
Gas-bed heat transfer
Particle-bed heat transfer
Mass transfer: an introduction
cle-bed mass transfer
Gas-bed mass transfer
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Notation
Attrition phenomena relevant to fluidized bed combustion and gasification systems
F Scala and R Chirone, National Research Council, Italy, and P Salatino, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
Introduction
Attrition mechanisms in fluidized beds
Attrition of solid fuels during conversion
Attrition of sorbent particles
Attrition of other bed solids
Attrition models
Incorporation of attrition in fluidized bed models
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Notation
Fundamentals of Fluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification
Conversion of solid fuels and sorbents in fluidized bed combustion and gasification
F Scala and R Solimene, National Research Council, Italy, and F Montagnaro, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Introduction
Solid fuel properties in fluidized beds
Fuel devolatilization and conversion of volatiles
Char combustion and gasification reactions
Mechanisms controlling char conversion rate
Char particle temperature
Calcium-based sorbents for in situ desulphurization (ISD)
Reactivation by hydration of spent calcium-based sorbents
Other sorbent conversion processes in fluidized beds
Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References
Appendix: Notation
Conversion of liquid and gaseous fuels in fluidized bed combustion and gasification
M Miccio, Università di Salerno, Italy and F Miccio, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Italy
Introduction
Fuels
Fuel feeding
Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of gaseous fuels
FBC of liquid fuels
Emissions
Combustion mechanism of liquid fuels
Conclusion and future trends
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix: Nomenclature
Pollutant emissions and their control in fluidised bed combustion and gasification
Gulyurtlu, F Pinto, P Abelha, H Lopes and A T Crujeira, LNEG, Portugal
Introduction
Emissions from fluidised bed combustion (FBC) processes
Methods for controlling emissions during combustion and post-combustion
Emissions from fluidised bed gasification processes
Control of emissions during gasification and post-gasification
Deposition and environmental issues associated with residual ash
Future trends
References
Fluidized bed reactor design and scale up
T M Knowlton, Particulate Solid Research, Inc, USA
Introduction
General scale-up procedure
Selecting mathematical models and fluidization regimes for bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds
Selecting mathematical models and fluidization regimes for circulating fluidized beds
Constructing pilot, demonstration and commercial plants
Circulating fluidized bed combustor scale-up and other considerations
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Notation
Modeling of fluidized bed combustion processes
D Pallarès and F Johnsson, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Introduction
Types of modeling
Semi-empirical modeling: basic sub-models
Semi-empirical modeling: comprehensive models
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Nomenclature
Modelling of fluidized bed gasification processes
A Gómez-Barea, University of Seville, Spain
Introduction
Qualitative description of the main conversion processes
Types of reactor models
Fluidization modelling
Examples of simulations of fluidized bed gasifiers (FBGs)
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Notation
Economic evaluation of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) power generation plants
J M Wheeldon and D Thimsen, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), USA
Introduction
Economic evaluation
The economic benefits of fuel flexibility
Role of circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) technology in reducing CO2
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Abbreviations
Fluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification Technologies
Atmospheric (non-circulating) fluidized bed combustion
B Leckner, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Introduction
Fluidized bed (FB) combustor principles
Examples of boilers
Operational aspects of FB combustion of biomass
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
References
Appendix: Nomenclature
Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC)
T Shimizu, Niigata University, Japan
Introduction
Basic principles, science and technology of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC)
Development of combustion processes and technology
Advantages and limitations of PFBC
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
References
Appendix: Notation
Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC)
W Nowak and P Mirek, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
ntroduction
Basic principles of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC)
Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler process and performance
Reliability and availability of CFB boilers
Development strategy and challenges of CFBC technology
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
References
Appendix: Nomenclature
Fluidized bed gasification
U Arena, Second University of Naples, Italy
Fluidized bed reactors for solid fuel gasification
Fluidized bed gasification process
Fluidized bed gasification technology
Operating performance of fluidized bed gasifiers
Conclusion and future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References
Measurement, monitoring and control of fluidized bed combustion and gasification
M Rüdisüli, T J Schildhauer and S M A Biollaz, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland, and J R van Ommen, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Introduction
Measurement techniques
Physical properties of pressure fluctuations in fluidized beds
Time series analysis of pressure fluctuations in fluidized beds
Industrial application of monitoring and measurement techniques
Conclusion
References
Emerging CO2 Capture Technologies
Oxy-fired fluidized bed combustion: technology, prospects and new developments
E J Anthony, Cranfield University, UK and H Hack, Foster Wheeler North America Corp, USA
Introduction
Oxy-fired circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC): research and development
Gas/solid emissions
Modelling, hydrodynamics and related issues
Larger-scale tests and industrial plans
Flue gas issues and conditioning for oxy-fuel technology
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Chemical looping combustion (CLC)
A Lyngfelt, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Introduction
Basic principles of chemical looping combustion (CLC)
Applications of CLC
Oxygen carrier materials
Chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)
Development of fluidized bed reactor system for CLC
Advantages and limitations of CLC
Future trends
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
References
Calcium looping for CO2 capture in combustion systems
J C Abanades, Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Spain
Introduction
Basic principles
Development of calcium looping (CaL) fluidized bed processes
Application of CaL at pilot scale
Advantages and limitations
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
References
Appendix: Notation
Sorption-enhanced gasification
C Pfeifer, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, formerly Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Introduction
Fundamentals of sorption-enhanced gasification
Thermodynamics of sorption-enhanced gasification
Limitations
Literature review about research and commercial examples: experiments on a laboratory scale ( 100 kWth)
Literature review about research and commercial examples: experiments on a pilot scale (>100 kWth)
Literature review about research and commercial examples: experiments on an industrial scale
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
References
Other Applications of Fluidized Bed Technology
Applications of fluidized bed technology in processes other than combustion and gasification
F Winter and B Schratzer, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Introduction
Petroleum refining and chemical production
Production of metals and oxides
Coal preparation, power plants and waste incineration
Conclusion
References
Appendix: Abbreviations
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