Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013. XXXI, 1033 p. — ISBN 978-0-85709-541-1 (print).Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is an advanced technique for fuel flexible, high efficiency and low emission power generation. In these systems, fuels are combusted as a fluidized bed suspended by jets of air with sorbents that remove harmful emissions such as NOx, SOx and CO2. The editor and contributors provide an up-to-date, comprehensive book on fluidized bed (FB)combustion/gasification technology, with a focus on new emerging carbon capture technologies.Chapters 1-6 present a general overview of fluidization technology with some historical details, a description of particle characterization methods and particle behavior in a fluidized system, and an overall picture of the properties of bubbling and circulating FBs. The second section (chapters 7-13) provides information on the fundamental research being done on FB combustion and gasification.In contrast to the first two parts, which have a more fundamental character, the third section (chapters 14-18) is more practically oriented and discusses advances in atmospheric and pressurized boilers for coal, biomass, and waste. Chapters also detail the characteristics of the FB gasification technology and the most recent measurement techniques in FB systems. Part four (chapters 19-22) focus on the emerging carbon capture technologies involving fluidized bed systems, namely oxy-fired combustion, chemical looping combustion, calcium looping for de-carbonation of flue gas, and sorption-enhanced gasification. The book's concluding chapter 23 extends the concepts described in previous parts to other application of FB technology (both in chemical and physical processes) not involving combustion and gasification.ContentsIntroduction to Fluidization Science and Technology Overview of fluidization science and fluidized bed technologies M Horio, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan Introduction Fluidization as a fundamental phenomenon and its formulation Historical development of fluidization technology Historical development of fluidization science Conclusion and future trends Acknowledgements References Appendix: Notation Particle characterization and behaviour relevant to fluidized bed combustion and gasification systems D Wang and L-S Fan, The Ohio State University, USA Introduction Characterization of particles Fluid-particle interactions Particle-particle interactions Particle fluidization characteristics Particle property effects in a novel combustion system Conclusion Sources of further information and advice References Appendix: Nomenclature Properties of stationary (bubbling) fluidised beds relevant to combustion and gasification systems J S Dennis, University of Cambridge, UK ntroduction Fundamental aspects Modelling bubbling fluidised bed reactors Conclusion and future trends References Appendix: Nomenclature Properties of circulating fluidized beds relevant to combustion and gasification systems J R Grace and C J Lim, University of British Columbia, Canada Introduction Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) configurations CFB hydrodynamics Mixing in CFBs Heat transfer in CFBs Reactor modeling Conclusion References Appendix: Notation Heat and mass transfer in fluidized bed combustion and gasification systems F Di Natale and R Nigro, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy, and F Scala, National Research Council, Italy Heat transfer: an introduction Surface-bed heat transfer: introduction and experimental evidence Surface-bed heat transfer modelling Gas-bed heat transfer Particle-bed heat transfer Mass transfer: an introduction cle-bed mass transfer Gas-bed mass transfer Conclusion References Appendix: Notation Attrition phenomena relevant to fluidized bed combustion and gasification systems F Scala and R Chirone, National Research Council, Italy, and P Salatino, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy Introduction Attrition mechanisms in fluidized beds Attrition of solid fuels during conversion Attrition of sorbent particles Attrition of other bed solids Attrition models Incorporation of attrition in fluidized bed models Conclusion References Appendix: Notation Fundamentals of Fluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification Conversion of solid fuels and sorbents in fluidized bed combustion and gasification F Scala and R Solimene, National Research Council, Italy, and F Montagnaro, University of Naples Federico II, Italy Introduction Solid fuel properties in fluidized beds Fuel devolatilization and conversion of volatiles Char combustion and gasification reactions Mechanisms controlling char conversion rate Char particle temperature Calcium-based sorbents for in situ desulphurization (ISD) Reactivation by hydration of spent calcium-based sorbents Other sorbent conversion processes in fluidized beds Conclusion Acknowledgment References Appendix: Notation Conversion of liquid and gaseous fuels in fluidized bed combustion and gasification M Miccio, Università di Salerno, Italy and F Miccio, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Italy Introduction Fuels Fuel feeding Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of gaseous fuels FBC of liquid fuels Emissions Combustion mechanism of liquid fuels Conclusion and future trends Acknowledgements References Appendix: Nomenclature Pollutant emissions and their control in fluidised bed combustion and gasification Gulyurtlu, F Pinto, P Abelha, H Lopes and A T Crujeira, LNEG, Portugal Introduction Emissions from fluidised bed combustion (FBC) processes Methods for controlling emissions during combustion and post-combustion Emissions from fluidised bed gasification processes Control of emissions during gasification and post-gasification Deposition and environmental issues associated with residual ash Future trends References Fluidized bed reactor design and scale up T M Knowlton, Particulate Solid Research, Inc, USA Introduction General scale-up procedure Selecting mathematical models and fluidization regimes for bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds Selecting mathematical models and fluidization regimes for circulating fluidized beds Constructing pilot, demonstration and commercial plants Circulating fluidized bed combustor scale-up and other considerations Conclusion References Appendix: Notation Modeling of fluidized bed combustion processes D Pallarès and F Johnsson, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Introduction Types of modeling Semi-empirical modeling: basic sub-models Semi-empirical modeling: comprehensive models Conclusion References Appendix: Nomenclature Modelling of fluidized bed gasification processes A Gómez-Barea, University of Seville, Spain Introduction Qualitative description of the main conversion processes Types of reactor models Fluidization modelling Examples of simulations of fluidized bed gasifiers (FBGs) Conclusion References Appendix: Notation Economic evaluation of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) power generation plants J M Wheeldon and D Thimsen, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), USA Introduction Economic evaluation The economic benefits of fuel flexibility Role of circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) technology in reducing CO2 Conclusion References Appendix: AbbreviationsFluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification Technologies Atmospheric (non-circulating) fluidized bed combustion B Leckner, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Introduction Fluidized bed (FB) combustor principles Examples of boilers Operational aspects of FB combustion of biomass Conclusion Sources of further information and advice References Appendix: Nomenclature Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) T Shimizu, Niigata University, Japan Introduction Basic principles, science and technology of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) Development of combustion processes and technology Advantages and limitations of PFBC Conclusion Sources of further information and advice References Appendix: Notation Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) W Nowak and P Mirek, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland ntroduction Basic principles of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler process and performance Reliability and availability of CFB boilers Development strategy and challenges of CFBC technology Conclusion Sources of further information and advice References Appendix: Nomenclature Fluidized bed gasification U Arena, Second University of Naples, Italy Fluidized bed reactors for solid fuel gasification Fluidized bed gasification process Fluidized bed gasification technology Operating performance of fluidized bed gasifiers Conclusion and future trends Sources of further information and advice References Measurement, monitoring and control of fluidized bed combustion and gasification M Rüdisüli, T J Schildhauer and S M A Biollaz, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland, and J R van Ommen, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Introduction Measurement techniques Physical properties of pressure fluctuations in fluidized beds Time series analysis of pressure fluctuations in fluidized beds Industrial application of monitoring and measurement techniques Conclusion ReferencesEmerging CO2 Capture Technologies Oxy-fired fluidized bed combustion: technology, prospects and new developments E J Anthony, Cranfield University, UK and H Hack, Foster Wheeler North America Corp, USA Introduction Oxy-fired circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC): research and development Gas/solid emissions Modelling, hydrodynamics and related issues Larger-scale tests and industrial plans Flue gas issues and conditioning for oxy-fuel technology Conclusion Acknowledgements References Chemical looping combustion (CLC) A Lyngfelt, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Introduction Basic principles of chemical looping combustion (CLC) Applications of CLC Oxygen carrier materials Chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) Development of fluidized bed reactor system for CLC Advantages and limitations of CLC Future trends Conclusion Sources of further information and advice References Calcium looping for CO2 capture in combustion systems J C Abanades, Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Spain Introduction Basic principles Development of calcium looping (CaL) fluidized bed processes Application of CaL at pilot scale Advantages and limitations Conclusion Sources of further information and advice References Appendix: Notation Sorption-enhanced gasification C Pfeifer, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, formerly Vienna University of Technology, Austria Introduction Fundamentals of sorption-enhanced gasification Thermodynamics of sorption-enhanced gasification Limitations Literature review about research and commercial examples: experiments on a laboratory scale ( 100 kWth) Literature review about research and commercial examples: experiments on a pilot scale (>100 kWth) Literature review about research and commercial examples: experiments on an industrial scale Conclusion Sources of further information and advice ReferencesOther Applications of Fluidized Bed Technology Applications of fluidized bed technology in processes other than combustion and gasification F Winter and B Schratzer, Vienna University of Technology, Austria Introduction Petroleum refining and chemical production Production of metals and oxides Coal preparation, power plants and waste incineration Conclusion References Appendix: Abbreviations
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