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Luo F.L., Ye H. Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy

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Luo F.L., Ye H. Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2013. XIV, 302 p. ISBN-13: 978-1-4665-1138-5 (eBook - PDF).
DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors, including more than 50 new circuits. It also discusses recently published cutting-edge topologies.
Novel PWM and Multilevel Inverters
The book first covers traditional pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverters before moving on to new quasi-impedance source inverters and soft-switching PWM inverters. It then examines multilevel DC/AC inverters, which have overcome the drawbacks of PWM inverters and provide greater scope for industrial applications. The authors propose four novel multilevel inverters: laddered multilevel inverters, super-lift modulated inverters, switched-capacitor inverters, and switched-inductor inverters. With simple structures and fewer components, these inverters are well suited for renewable energy systems.
Get the Best Switching Angles for Any Multilevel Inverter
A key topic for multilevel inverters is the need to manage the switching angles to obtain the lowest total harmonic distortion (THD). The authors outline four methods for finding the best switching angles and use simulation waveforms to verify the design. The optimum switching angles for multilevel DC/AC inverters are also listed in tables for quick reference.
Application Examples of DC/AC Inverters in Renewable Energy Systems
Highlighting the importance of inverters in improving energy saving and power-supply quality, the final chapter of the book supplies design examples for applications in wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Written by pioneers in advanced conversion and inversion technology, this book guides readers in designing more effective DC/AC inverters for use in renewable energy systems.
Contents
Preface
Authors
Introduction
Symbols and Factors Used in This Book
Symbols Used in Power Systems
Factors and Symbols Used in AC Power Systems
Factors and Symbols Used in DC Power Systems
FFT—Fast Fourier Transform
Central Symmetrical Periodical Function
Axial (Mirror) Symmetrical Periodical Function
Nonperiodic Function
Useful Formulae and Data
Examples of FFT Applications
DC/AC Inverters
Categorizing Existing Inverters
Updated Circuits
Soft Switching Methods
References
Pulse Width-Modulated DC/AC Inverters
Introduction
Parameters Used in PWM Operation
Modulation Ratios
Linear Range ≤ m ( 1.0) a
Over Modulation ≤ m (1.0 3.24) a
Square Wave (Sufficiently Large ma 3.24)
Small mf (mf ≤ 21)
Large mf (mf 21)
Harmonic Parameters
Typical PWM Inverters
Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
Current Source Inverter (CSI)
Impedance Source Inverter (z-Source Inverter—ZSI)
Circuits of DC/AC Inverters
References
Voltage Source Inverters
Single-Phase Voltage Source Inverter
Single-Phase Half-Bridge VSI
Single-Phase Full-Bridge VSI
Three-Phase Full-Bridge VSI
Vector Analysis and Determination of ma
Vector Analysis
ma Calculation
ma Calculation with L-C Filter
Some Waveforms
Multistage PWM Inverter
Unipolar PWM VSI
Multicell PWM VSI
Multilevel PWM Inverter
References
Current Source Inverters
Three-Phase Full-Bridge Current Source Inverter
Boost-Type CSI
Negative Polarity Input Voltage
Positive Polarity Input Voltage
CSI with L-C Filter
References
Impedance Source Inverters
Comparison with VSI and CSI
Equivalent Circuit and Operation
Circuit Analysis and Calculations
Simulation and Experimental Results
References
Quasi-Impedance Source Inverters
Introduction to ZSI and Basic Topologies
Extended Boost qZSI Topologies
Diode-Assisted Extended Boost qZSI Topologies
Capacitor-Assisted Extended Boost qZSI Topologies
Simulation Results
References
Soft-Switching DC/AC Inverters
Notched DC Link Inverters for Brushless DC Motor Drive
Resonant Circuit
Design Considerations
Control Scheme
Non-PWM Operation
PWM Operation
Simulation and Experimental Results
Resonant Pole Inverter
Topology of Resonant Pole Inverter
Operation Principle
Design Considerations
Simulation and Experimental Results
Transformer-Based Resonant DC Link Inverter
Resonant Circuit
Design Considerations
Control Scheme
Full Duty Cycle Operation
PWM Operation
Simulation and Experimental Results
References
Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
Introduction
Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverters
Capacitor-Clamped Multilevel Inverters (Flying Capacitor Inverters)
Multilevel Inverters Using H-Bridges (HBs) Converters
Cascaded Equal Voltage Multilevel Inverters (CEMI)
Binary Hybrid Multilevel Inverter (BHMI)
Quasi-Linear Multilevel Inverter (QLMI)
Trinary Hybrid Multilevel Inverter (THMI)
Other Kinds of Multilevel Inverters
Generalized Multilevel Inverters (GMI)
Mixed-Level Multilevel Inverter Topologies
Multilevel Inverters by Connection of Three-Phase
Two-Level Inverters
References
Trinary Hybrid Multilevel Inverter (THMI)
Topology and Operation
Proof of Greatest Number of Output Voltage Levels
Theoretical Proof
Comparison of Various Kinds of Multilevel Inverters
Modulation Strategies for THMI
Step Modulation Strategy
Virtual Stage Modulation Strategy
Hybrid Modulation Strategy
Subharmonic PWM Strategies
Simple Modulation Strategy
Regenerative Power
Analysis of DC Bus Power Injection
Regenerative Power in THMI
Method to Avoid Regenerative Power
Summary of Regenerative Power in THMI
Experimental Results
Experiment to Verify Step Modulation and Virtual Stage Modulation
Experiment to Verify New Method to Eliminate
Regenerative Power
Trinary Hybrid 81-Level Multilevel Inverter
Space Vector Modulation
DC Sources of H-Bridges
Motor Controller
Simulation and Experimental Results
References
Laddered Multilevel DC/AC Inverters Used in Solar Panel Energy Systems
Introduction
Progressions (Series)
Arithmetic Progressions
Unit Progression
Natural Number Progression
Odd Number Progression
Geometric Progressions
Binary Progression
Trinary Number Progression
New Progressions
Luo Progression
Ye Progression
Laddered Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
Special Switches
Toggle Switch
Change-over Switch
Band Switch
General Circuit of Laddered Inverters
Linear Laddered Inverters (LLIs)
Natural Number Laddered Inverters (NNLIs)
Odd Number Laddered Inverters (ONLIs)
Binary Laddered Inverters (BLIs)
Modified Binary Laddered Inverters (MBLIs)
Luo Progression Laddered Inverters (LPLIs)
Ye Progression Laddered Inverters (YPLIs)
Trinary Laddered Inverters (TLIs)
Comparison of All Laddered Inverters
Solar Panel Energy Systems
Simulation and Experimental Results
References
Super-Lift Converter Multilevel DC/AC Inverters Used in Solar Panel Energy Systems
Introduction
Super-Lift Converter Used in Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
Seven-Level SL Inverter
Fifteen-Level SL Inverter
Twenty-One-Level SC Inverter
Simulation and Experimental Results
References
Switched-Capacitor Multilevel DC/AC Inverters in Solar Panel Energy Systems
Introduction
Switched Capacitor Used in Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
Five-Level SC Inverter
Nine-Level SC Inverter
Fifteen-Level SC Inverter
Higher-Level SC Inverter
Simulation and Experimental Results
References
Switched Inductor Multilevel DC/AC Inverters Used in Solar Panel Energy Systems
Introduction
Switched Inductor Used in Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
Five-Level SI Inverter
Nine-Level SL Inverter
Fifteen-Level SC Inverter
Simulation and Experimental Results
References
Best Switching Angles to Obtain Lowest THD for Multilevel DC/AC Inverters
Introduction
Methods for Determination of Switching Angle
Main Switching Angles
Equal-Phase (EP) Method
Half-Equal-Phase (HEP) Method
Half-Height (HH) Method
Feed-Forward (FF) Method
Comparison of Methods in Each Level
Comparison of Levels for Each Method
THDs of Different Methods
Best Switching Angles
Using MATLAB® to Obtain Best Switching Angles
Analysis of Results of Best Switching Angles Calculation
Output Voltage Waveform for Multilevel Inverters
References
Design Examples for Wind Turbine and Solar Panel Energy Systems
Introduction
Wind Turbine Energy Systems
Technical Features
Design Example for Wind Turbine Power System
Design Example for Wind Turbine
Design Example for Converters
Simulation Results
Solar Panel Energy Systems
Technical Features
P/O Super-Lift Luo Converter
Closed-Loop Control
PWM Inverter
System Design
Simulation Results
References
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