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Aswathanarayana U., Divi R.S. (Eds.) Energy Portfolios: Customization and Management

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Aswathanarayana U., Divi R.S. (Eds.) Energy Portfolios: Customization and Management
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 2009. XXVII+336 p. — ISBN 978-0-415-46985-2 (hardback), ISBN 978-0-203-87660-2 (ebook).
Deals with how energy from different sources can be used to fulfill a country's enegery need, taking into account the country's natural resources, technologies, and social, economical and environmental impact.
Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Plates
Preface
Foreword
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Energy from coal
Preamble
Coal: Its mode of formation and economic importance
Formation of coal
Coal-bearing sedimentation sequences
Importance of coal in the energy economy
Carbon emissions and climate change
Carbon dioxide emissions and radiative forcing
Biophysical and socioeconomic consequences of Global Warming
Coal mining technologies and the environment
Opencast mining
Underground mining
Equipment automation
Environmental impact analysis of coal mining
Rehabilitation of mined land
Economics of environmental protection
Environmental impact of the coal cycle
General considerations
Preparation of coal
Disposal of coal mine tailings
Subsidence
Coal dusts during the coal cycle
Environmental consequences of coal use in the steel industry
Wastes from coal industries
Solid wastes
Liquid wastes
Emissions due to coal industries
Loss of biodiversity
Beneficial use of mining wastes
Health hazards due to coal industries
Dust hazards in coal mining
Dust hazards in steel industry
Falls and explosions
Mine flooding
Chemical hazards
Biological hazards
Mental hazards
The way ahead
Power generation technologies
Solving the climate problem with current technologies
Role of coal in the energy portfolio of South Africa
South African coal in the global setting
The South Africa energy scene
South Africa’s coal resources
Coal export industry
Infrastructure
The value of coal in South African economy
Clean coal technologies
Legislation and policy
Opportunities for South African coal
Role of coal in the energy portfolio of China
Demographic, economic and political context
China’s energy sector
Coal resources of China
Coal transport
Electricity from coal-fired power stations
Economics of power generation
Environmental impact of the coal industry
Coal and climate change
Energy efficiency
References
Energy from oil and natural gas
Preamble
Introduction
World energy status
Consumption and demand
End-use sector
Energy from oil
Prices and consumption of oil
Distribution, reserves and resources of oil
Production peak and future demand for oil
Energy from natural gas
Prices and consumption
Geographic distribution, reserves and resources
End-use sector and carbon dioxide emissions
Towards efficient usage of oil and natural gas in future
Fuel switching
End-use efficiency
Saudi Arabia – country case study
Introduction
Distribution, reserves and resources
Production, consumption and exports
End-use sectors and carbon dioxide emissions
Future scenario
Russia – country case study
Introduction
Distribution, reserves and resources
Production and exports
End-use sectors and carbon dioxide emissions
Future scenario
References
Energy from the Atom
Preamble
Nuclear power
Radiation units
Fissile and fertile radioactive isotopes
Uranium resources
Thorium resources
Three-stage development of nuclear power in India
Disposal of uranium mill tailings
Introduction
Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings
Environmental impact of uranium mines and mill tailings
Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)
Modeling of contaminant impact
Conclusion
Spent nuclear fuel
Nuclear Fuel Cycles
Nuclear Fuel Fabrication
Radioactivity of Spent Nuclear Fuel
Structure and Composition of the Spent Nuclear Fuel
Behaviour of SNF in a geologic repository
Natural Fission Reactors of Oklo, Gabon, West Africa
Neptunium Mobility and its implications for SNF disposal
Vitrification of radioactive wastes
Geological issues relevant to the siting of waste repositories
High-level wastes immobilized in glass
Geochemical considerations in the fabrication of waste glass
Long-term stability of nuclear wastes glass
Glass – water reactions
Modeling of alteration mechanisms
Immobilization of waste actinides in ceramic
Single phase waste forms
Radiation hazards
Radiation from rocks
Radon risk
Biogeochemical cycling of radioactive pollutants
Meltdown
Chernobyl reactor accident
Epilogue
Future of nuclear power
Resource position
Cost of nuclear power
Projected nuclear power capacity
Reactor designs
Pebble-bed reactors
R&D areas
Role of Nuclear power in India’s energy security
Introduction
India’s energy resource base
History of development of nuclear power in India
Future plans – Nuclear reactors planned & capacity buildup
Safety management in Indian nuclear power plants
Merits of nuclear power
Techno-economic aspects of production of Nuclear power – investments and tariffs
Conclusions
Role of Nuclear power in the energy portfolio of Japan
Endowment of uranium and thorium resources of Japan
Present and projected consumption of nuclear energy per capita in relation to the primary energy sources in the energy mix
Technologies to improve the production of electricity from uranium, investments (per kWe) and fuel costs (per kWh) of the present and projected nuclear energy
Hazards, risks, safety, policy, management, etc. of nuclear industry
Health impacts of radiation environment (quality of air, water, soil, etc.) of the projected nuclear energy use
Implications of the projected nuclear energy use on GDP per capita and quality of life
References
Renewable energy resources
Preamble
Hydropower
Introduction
Hydropower facilities
Pumped storage hydroelectricity
In-river small-scale hydropower projects
Resources and costs
Geothermal and ocean energy
Introduction
Costs
Research & Development
Ocean energy
Wind energy
Introduction
Projected growth of wind power
Technology and cost developments
Market overview
Environmental factors
Offshore wind power
Biomass and Bioenergy
Introduction
The Brazilian experience with ethanol
Solar energy
Introduction
Photovoltaics
PV technology
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
References
QUO VADIS?
Preamble
Global energy security
Introduction
Demographic assumptions
Macroeconomic assumptions
Per capita GDP, energy use and carbon dioxide emissions
ACT and Blue scenarios
Decarbonising the different sectors
Energy efficiency trends
Research & Development, demonstration and deployment
Key roadmaps for sustainable energy future
Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
Overview
Economics and technological status of carbon dioxide capture and storage
Underground geological storage
Processes and pathways for release of CO2 from geological storage sites
Potential hazards to human health and safety
Risk management
Legal issues
Nuclear power in France: a success story
Introduction
French scientific tradition regarding nuclear science
From 1945 to 1973: The glorious thirty years
The first generation of nuclear plants
Reacting to the first oil shock
From 1974 to 2000: The French quantitative nuclear programme
A comprehensive systemic approach to nuclear power
Preparing for the renewal of the PWR fleet
Enters AREVA
Conclusion
References
Appendix
Author index
Subject index
Colour plates
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