CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 2009. XXVII+336 p. — ISBN 978-0-415-46985-2 (hardback), ISBN 978-0-203-87660-2 (ebook).Deals with how energy from different sources can be used to fulfill a country's enegery need, taking into account the country's natural resources, technologies, and social, economical and environmental impact.Contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Plates Preface Foreword Abbreviations and AcronymsEnergy from coalPreamble Coal: Its mode of formation and economic importance Formation of coal Coal-bearing sedimentation sequences Importance of coal in the energy economy Carbon emissions and climate change Carbon dioxide emissions and radiative forcing Biophysical and socioeconomic consequences of Global Warming Coal mining technologies and the environment Opencast mining Underground mining Equipment automation Environmental impact analysis of coal mining Rehabilitation of mined land Economics of environmental protection Environmental impact of the coal cycle General considerations Preparation of coal Disposal of coal mine tailings Subsidence Coal dusts during the coal cycle Environmental consequences of coal use in the steel industry Wastes from coal industries Solid wastes Liquid wastes Emissions due to coal industries Loss of biodiversity Beneficial use of mining wastes Health hazards due to coal industries Dust hazards in coal mining Dust hazards in steel industry Falls and explosions Mine flooding Chemical hazards Biological hazards Mental hazards The way ahead Power generation technologies Solving the climate problem with current technologies Role of coal in the energy portfolio of South Africa South African coal in the global setting The South Africa energy scene South Africa’s coal resources Coal export industry Infrastructure The value of coal in South African economy Clean coal technologies Legislation and policy Opportunities for South African coal Role of coal in the energy portfolio of China Demographic, economic and political context China’s energy sector Coal resources of China Coal transport Electricity from coal-fired power stations Economics of power generation Environmental impact of the coal industry Coal and climate change Energy efficiency ReferencesEnergy from oil and natural gasPreamble Introduction World energy status Consumption and demand End-use sector Energy from oil Prices and consumption of oil Distribution, reserves and resources of oil Production peak and future demand for oil Energy from natural gas Prices and consumption Geographic distribution, reserves and resources End-use sector and carbon dioxide emissions Towards efficient usage of oil and natural gas in future Fuel switching End-use efficiency Saudi Arabia – country case study Introduction Distribution, reserves and resources Production, consumption and exports End-use sectors and carbon dioxide emissions Future scenario Russia – country case study Introduction Distribution, reserves and resources Production and exports End-use sectors and carbon dioxide emissions Future scenario ReferencesEnergy from the AtomPreamble Nuclear power Radiation units Fissile and fertile radioactive isotopes Uranium resources Thorium resources Three-stage development of nuclear power in India Disposal of uranium mill tailings Introduction Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings Environmental impact of uranium mines and mill tailings Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Modeling of contaminant impact Conclusion Spent nuclear fuel Nuclear Fuel Cycles Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Radioactivity of Spent Nuclear Fuel Structure and Composition of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Behaviour of SNF in a geologic repository Natural Fission Reactors of Oklo, Gabon, West Africa Neptunium Mobility and its implications for SNF disposal Vitrification of radioactive wastes Geological issues relevant to the siting of waste repositories High-level wastes immobilized in glass Geochemical considerations in the fabrication of waste glass Long-term stability of nuclear wastes glass Glass – water reactions Modeling of alteration mechanisms Immobilization of waste actinides in ceramic Single phase waste forms Radiation hazards Radiation from rocks Radon risk Biogeochemical cycling of radioactive pollutants Meltdown Chernobyl reactor accident Epilogue Future of nuclear power Resource position Cost of nuclear power Projected nuclear power capacity Reactor designs Pebble-bed reactors R&D areas Role of Nuclear power in India’s energy security Introduction India’s energy resource base History of development of nuclear power in India Future plans – Nuclear reactors planned & capacity buildup Safety management in Indian nuclear power plants Merits of nuclear power Techno-economic aspects of production of Nuclear power – investments and tariffs Conclusions Role of Nuclear power in the energy portfolio of Japan Endowment of uranium and thorium resources of Japan Present and projected consumption of nuclear energy per capita in relation to the primary energy sources in the energy mix Technologies to improve the production of electricity from uranium, investments (per kWe) and fuel costs (per kWh) of the present and projected nuclear energy Hazards, risks, safety, policy, management, etc. of nuclear industry Health impacts of radiation environment (quality of air, water, soil, etc.) of the projected nuclear energy use Implications of the projected nuclear energy use on GDP per capita and quality of life ReferencesRenewable energy resourcesPreamble Hydropower Introduction Hydropower facilities Pumped storage hydroelectricity In-river small-scale hydropower projects Resources and costs Geothermal and ocean energy Introduction Costs Research & Development Ocean energy Wind energy Introduction Projected growth of wind power Technology and cost developments Market overview Environmental factors Offshore wind power Biomass and Bioenergy Introduction The Brazilian experience with ethanol Solar energy Introduction Photovoltaics PV technology Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) ReferencesQUO VADIS?Preamble Global energy security Introduction Demographic assumptions Macroeconomic assumptions Per capita GDP, energy use and carbon dioxide emissions ACT and Blue scenarios Decarbonising the different sectors Energy efficiency trends Research & Development, demonstration and deployment Key roadmaps for sustainable energy future Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Overview Economics and technological status of carbon dioxide capture and storage Underground geological storage Processes and pathways for release of CO2 from geological storage sites Potential hazards to human health and safety Risk management Legal issues Nuclear power in France: a success story Introduction French scientific tradition regarding nuclear science From 1945 to 1973: The glorious thirty years The first generation of nuclear plants Reacting to the first oil shock From 1974 to 2000: The French quantitative nuclear programme A comprehensive systemic approach to nuclear power Preparing for the renewal of the PWR fleet Enters AREVA Conclusion References Appendix Author index Subject index Colour plates
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Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013. 977 p. Print ISBN: 978-3-527-33239-7, ePDF ISBN: 978-3-527-67390-2, ePub ISBN: 978-3-527-67389-6, Mobi ISBN: 978-3-527-67388-9, oBook ISBN: 978-3-527-67387-2.
In the wake of global climate change and increasing geopolitical instability of oil supply an accelerated Transition to Renewable Energy System gets increasingly important, if not...