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Cruz J. Ocean Wave Energy: Current Status and Future Prespectives

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Cruz J. Ocean Wave Energy: Current Status and Future Prespectives
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. XI, 431 p. — ISBN 978-3-540-74894-6, e-ISBN 978-3-540-74895-3.
The authors of this reference provide an updated and global view on ocean wave energy conversion for wave energy developers as well as for students and professors. The book is orientated to the practical solutions that this new industry has found so far and the problems that any device needs to face. It describes the actual principles applied to machines that convert wave power in electricity. Additionally, an historical review, state of the art of modern systems, a full scale prototype experience, and future perspectives are given.
The authors are recognised researchers, and their contributions give an overall perspective of the state of the art of different technologies. The book does not intend to point to a specific technology; the market will be responsible for that. The main motivation to compile these texts is to provide, both to academia and industry, a first contact with the current status of wave energy conversion technologies, hopefully inspiring the next generation of engineers and scientists.
Contents
Preface
Introduction
Wave Energy Literature
Layout
References
Looking Back
Wave Energy at the University of Edinburgh
Politics
Life after politics
Looking Forward
Acknowledgements
References
The Theory Behind the Conversion of Ocean Wave Energy: a Review
Introduction
Historical and Parallel Perspectives
Scope of the Review
Terminology and Concepts
Conversion Terminology
Classification of Devices
Alternative Device Classification
Preliminary Considerations
The Conversion Requirement
Modelling the Resource
Survivability
The Hydrodynamics of Offshore Devices
Hydrodynamic Approximations
The Equation of Motion
Optimal Hydrodynamic Performance
A Single Axisymmetric Device
Constrained Motion
Arrays of Devices
Elongated Bodies
Control and Design
Tuning and Bandwidth
Design
Control Strategies
The Oscillating Water Column
Frequency Domain Modelling
Time Domain Modelling and Control
Discussion
References
The Wave Energy Resource
The Resource and its Origin
Sea States and their Energy
Directional Spectra Estimation Using Stochastic Methods
Directional Spectra Estimation Using Deterministic Methods
Case Study Using Waverider Data
Wave Growth, Travel and Decay
Wave Climate Estimation
Buoys
Satellite Altimeters
Global Wave Models
Model Validation and Calibration
Wave Energy in Shallow Water
Discussion
References
Numerical and Experimental Modelling of WECs
Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling
Introduction to Panel Methods
Applications of Panel Methods to Wave Energy Conversion
Wave Tank and Wavemaker Design
Tank Width
Tank Length
Paddle Size
Multiple Paddles
Drive and Control Systems
Absorbing Wavemakers
Absorbing Beaches
Examples of Wave Tanks
Guidelines for Laboratory Testing of WECs
Introduction
Laboratory Testing
Shortcomings of Existing Practices
Results and Conclusions
Recommendations
Case Study: Pelamis
Numerical Simulation
Experimental Modelling
Outcomes
Discussion
References
Power Take-Off Systems
Air Turbine Design for OWCs
Introduction
Integrated systems: Engineering Design Requirements
Air Turbine Design Configurations
Operational Findings for the Wells Turbine
Discussion and Conclusions
Direct Drive – Linear Generators
Principles of Direct Drive Wave Energy Conversion With Linear Generators
Linear Generators
Linear Machines Topologies
Case Study: 3 m Point Absorber
Hydraulics
Introduction
Spline Pumps
Increasing Complexity
Advantages of Oil-Hydraulics
Hydraulic Circuits
Linear Pumps
Rotary Pumps
Ring-cam Pumps
Hydraulic Motors
Flow Commutation
Losses
Active Valves
Active Valve Machines
Digital Displacement TM
Alternative Applications: Desalination
Introduction
Desalination Technologies
Current Status of Wave-Powered Desalination
Challenges in Wave-Powered Desalination
Prospects for Wave-Powered Desalination
Discussion
References
Full-Scale WECs
Oscillating Water Column
LIMPET
Pico – European Pilot Plant
Archimedes Wave Swing (AWS)
History
Design of the Full-scale Pilot Plant
Linear Generator Design
Pelamis
Development Programme
Power Take-off
Pelamis Hydrodynamics – Harnessing and Hiding
Shedding the Load
Implementation – Technology Transfer
Wave Dragon
A Floating Overtopping Device
History of the Wave Dragon
Overtopping Theory
Wave Reflector Wings
Low Head Turbines and Power Train
Control
Summary
Operational Experience
Oscillating Water Column - LIMPET
Oscillating Water Column – Pico Plant
Archimedes Wave Swing (AWS)
Pelamis
Wave Dragon
Test Centres, Pilot Zones and European Cooperation
Case Study: Wave Dragon
Discussion
References
Environmental Impact Assessment
Legislation and Administrative Issues
The Need to Establish a Common Legislation
Structure of an EIA: Methodologies
Scientific Matters
Potential Environmental Impacts and the Need for Monitoring
Monitoring
Mitigation Measures
Case Studies
Tests of Single Devices
European Marine Energy Centre – EMEC
Tests of the First Arrays
Discussion
References
Author Index
Index
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