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Hein M., Arena A. Foundations of College Chemistry

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Hein M., Arena A. Foundations of College Chemistry
13th edition. — John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2010. — 629 p.
Contents
An Introduction to Chemistry.
Why Study Chemistry?
The Nature of Chemistry.
Thinking Like a Chemist.
A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Molecular Gastronomy.
The Scientific Method.
The Particulate Nature of Matter.
Physical States of Matter.
Classifying Matter.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises.
Standards for Measurement.
Scientific Notation.
Measurement and Uncertainty.
Significant Figures.
Significant Figures in Calculations.
The Metric System.
Dimensional Analysis.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Keeping Track of Units.
Measuring Mass and Volume.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Setting Standards.
Measurement of Temperature.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Taking the Temperature of Old Faithful.
Density.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Elements and Compounds.
Elements.
Distribution of Elements.
Names of the Elements.
Symbols of the Elements.
ntroduction to the Periodic Table.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Elements on UTube?
Elements in Their Natural States.
Elements That Exist as Diatomic Molecules.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Using Oxygen to Revive Damaged Art.
Compounds.
Chemical Formulas.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Cars: Is Hydrogen the Answer?
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Properties of Matter.
Properties of Substances.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Making Money.
Physical Changes.
Chemical Changes.
Conservation of Mass.
Learning to Solve Problems.
Energy.
Heat: Quantitative Measurement.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Popping Popcorn.
Energy in Chemical Changes.
Conservation of Energy.
Energy in the Real World.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
PUTTING IT TOGETHER.
Review for Chapters 1–4.
Early Atomic Theory and Structure.
Early Thoughts.
Dalton’s Model of the Atom.
Composition of Compounds.
The Nature of Electric Charge.
Discovery of Ions.
Subatomic Parts of the Atom.
The Nuclear Atom.
sotopes of the Elements.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
sotope Detectives.
Atomic Mass.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds.
Common and Systematic Names.
Elements and Ions.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
What’s in a Name?
Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds.
Naming Binary Compounds.
Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions.
Acids.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
PUTTING IT TOGETHER.
Review for Chapters 5–6.
Quantitative Composition of Compounds.
The Mole.
Molar Mass of Compounds.
Percent Composition of Compounds.
Empirical Formula versus Molecular Formula.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
anishing Coins?
Calculating Empirical Formulas.
Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Chemical Equations.
The Chemical Equation.
Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations.
Information in a Chemical Equation.
Types of Chemical Equations.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
CO Poisoning—A Silent Killer.
Heat in Chemical Reactions.
Global Warming: The GreenhouseEffect.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Decreasing Carbon Footprints.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Calculations from Chemical Equations.
A Short Review.
ntroduction to Stoichiometry.
Mole–Mole Calculations.
Mole–Mass Calculations.
Mass–Mass Calculations.
Limiting-Reactant and Yield Calculations.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
A Shrinking Technology.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
PUTTING IT TOGETHER.
Review for Chapters 7–9.
Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table.
A Brief History.
Electromagnetic Radiation.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
You Light Up My Life.
The Bohr Atom.
Energy Levels of Electrons.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Atomic Clocks.
Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements.
Electron Structures and the Periodic Table.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Collecting the Elements.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms.
Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties.
Lewis Structures of Atoms.
The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another.
Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds.
The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons.
Electronegativity.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Trans-forming Fats.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Goal! A Spherical Molecule.
Lewis Structures of Compounds.
Complex Lewis Structures.
Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions.
Molecular Shape.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Strong Enough to Stop a Bullet?
The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
PUTTING IT TOGETHER.
Review for Chapters 10–11.
The Gaseous State of Matter.
General Properties.
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory.
Measurement of Pressure of Gases.
Dependence of Pressure on Number of Molecules and Temperature.
Boyle’s Law.
Charles’ Law.
Gay-Lussac’s Law.
Combined Gas Laws.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Messenger Molecules.
Avogadro’s Law.
Mole–Mass–Volume Relationships of Gases.
Density of Gases.
Ideal Gas Law.
Gas Stoichiometry.
Real Gases.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Wetland Blanket for Global Warming.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Properties of Liquids.
What Is a Liquid?
Evaporation.
apor Pressure.
Surface Tension.
Boiling Point.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Chemical Eye Candy.
Freezing Point or Melting Point.
Changes of State.
The Hydrogen Bond.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
How Sweet It Is!
Hydrates.
Water, a Unique Liquid.
Water Purification.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Quenching the Thirst for Clean Water.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Solutions.
General Properties of Solutions.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Exploding Silicon.
Solubility.
Factors Related to Solubility.
Rate of Dissolving Solids.
Solutions: A Reaction Medium.
Concentration of Solutions.
Colligative Properties of Solutions.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
The Scoop on Ice Cream.
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
PUTTING IT TOGETHER.
Review for Chapters 12–14.
Acids, Bases, and Salts.
Acids and Bases.
Reactions of Acids.
Reactions of Bases.
Salts.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
A Cool Fizz.
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes.
Dissociation and Ionization of Electrolytes.
Strong and Weak Electrolytes.
onization of Water.
ntroduction to pH.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
In the Pink—A Sign of Corrosion.
Neutralization.
Writing Net Ionic Equations.
Acid Rain.
Colloids.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Foam Cars—Wave of the Future?
Properties of Colloids.
Applications of Colloidal Properties.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Chemical Equilibrium.
Reversible Reactions.
Rates of Reaction.
Chemical Equilibrium.
Le Châtelier’s Principle.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
New Ways in Fighting Cavities and Avoiding the Drill.
Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium.
Effect of Volume on Equilibrium.
Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium.
Effect of Catalysts on Equilibrium.
Equilibrium Constants.
on Product Constant for Water.
onization Constants.
Solubility Product Constant.
Acid–Base Properties of Salts.
Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Oxidation-Reduction.
Oxidation Number.
Oxidation–Reduction.
Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations.
Balancing Ionic Redox Equations.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Sensitive Sunglasses.
Activity Series of Metals.
Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Superbattery Uses Hungry Iron Ions.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
PUTTING IT TOGETHER.
Review for Chapters 15–17.
Nuclear Chemistry.
Discovery of Radioactivity.
Natural Radioactivity.
Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays.
Radioactive Disintegration Series.
Transmutation of Elements.
Artificial Radioactivity.
Measurement of Radioactivity.
Nuclear Fission.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Does Your Food Glow in the Dark?
Nuclear Power.
The Atomic Bomb.
Nuclear Fusion.
Mass-Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions.
Transuranium Elements.
Biological Effects of Radiation.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
A Window into Living Organisms.
Review.
Review Questions.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
Introduction to Organic Chemistry.
The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry.
The Carbon Atom.
Hydrocarbons.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Biodiesel: Today’s Alternative Fuel.
Alkanes.
Structural Formulas and Isomerism.
Naming Alkanes.
Alkenes and Alkynes.
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes.
Reactions of Alkenes.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
Naming Aromatic Compounds.
Hydrocarbon Derivatives.
Alkyl Halides.
Alcohols.
Naming Alcohols.
Ethers.
Aldehydes and Ketones.
Naming Aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic Acids.
Esters.
Polymers-Macromolecules.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION.
Getting Clothes CO2 Clean!
Review.
Review Question.
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises.
Answers to Practical Exercises.
Introduction to Biochemistry.
Chemistry in Living Organisms.
Carbohydrates.
Lipids.
Amino Acids and Proteins.
Enzymes.
Nucleic Acids.
DNA and Genetics.
Review.
Review Questions.
Answers to Practice Exercises.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER.
Review for Chapters 18-20.
Appendixes.
Mathematical Review.
Using a Scientific Calculator.
Units of Measurement.
apor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures.
Solubility Table.
Answers to Selected Questions and Exercises.
Answers to Putting It Together Review Exercises.
Glossary.
Photo Credits.
Index.
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