Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011. 247 p. — ISBN: 978-1-84973-194-2, ISSN: 1350-7583 — (Issues in Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 32).The environmental implications of generating electric power from nuclear fission have been a matter of concern since the construction of the earliest nuclear reactors and power stations in the 1950s. After two or more decades of construction of nuclear power stations, this ceased in many countries, largely as a result of concerns for the environment and human health. However, the pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is leading many countries to plan extensive new programmes of construction of nuclear power stations which serves to re-emphasise concerns over environmental impacts. Volume 32 of the Issues in Environmental Science and Technology series is concerned with reviewing the political and social context for nuclear power generation, the nuclear fuel cycles and their implications for the environment. Known issues of nuclear accidents, the legacy of contaminated land and low level waste, and the decommissioning of nuclear sites are considered together with a more forward look at the deep geological disposal of high level waste and the pathways of radioactive substances in the environment and their implications for human and non-human organisms. This topical work will be of interest to scientists and policy makers working within this field or related areas as well as advanced students.ContentsNuclear Power Generation – Past, Present and Future John Walls Introduction Origins of Nuclear Power: The Nuclear Weapons Programme Expansion of Nuclear Power A Period of Decline A Nuclear Renaissance? Possibilities and Challenges Uranium: A Sustainable Energy Source? Nuclear Power Economics Shortages in Skilled Labour and Materials Nuclear Safety Nuclear Waste Disposal and Decommissioning Nuclear Plants Proliferation Risks Conclusions ReferencesNuclear Fuel Cycles: Interfaces with the Environment Clint A. Sharrad, Laurence M. Harwood and Francis R. Livens Nuclear Fission as an Energy Resource Nuclear Fuel Uranium Mining Uranium Fuel Production and Use Modern Civil Reactor Fuels Plutonium Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel Alternative Fuels Uranium/Plutonium Fast Reactors Highly Enriched Uranium Thorium Nuclear Fuel Recycling Separation of Uranium and Plutonium Other Reasons to Reprocess Historical Reprocessing Technologies Precipitation Processes Purex Wastes from Fuel Reprocessing Other Solvent Extraction Processes Waste Management Options The UK Waste Inventory Impact of the ‘‘Global Nuclear Renaissance’’ Growth in Demand Implications for the Fuel Cycle Conclusions Acknowledgements ReferencesNuclear Accidents J. T. Smith Introduction The 1957 Windscale Fire Events Leading to the Accident Environmental Contamination Radiation Exposures and Health Impacts Social and Psychological Consequences The Kyshtym Explosion Events Leading to the Accident Environmental Contamination Radiation Exposures and their Environmental and Health Impacts Social and Psychological Impacts Three-Mile Island Events Leading to the Accident Environmental Contamination Radiation Exposures and their Environmental and Health Impacts Social and Psychological Impacts The Chernobyl Accident Events Leading to the Accident Environmental Contamination Radiation Exposures and their Environmental and Health Impacts Social and Psychological Impacts Conclusions ReferencesManagement of Land Contaminated by the Nuclear Legacy Richard Kimber, Francis R. Livens and Jonathan R. Lloyd Introduction Contamination at Worldwide Nuclear Facilities United Kingdom Sellaﬁeld Dounreay Russia Mayak United States of America Rocky Flats Oak Ridge Hanford Depleted Uranium Remediation Bioremediation Chemical Redox Reactions Permeable Reactive Barrier Sediment Washing Electrokinetic Remediation Case Studies Hanford Case Study Riﬂe Case Study Oak Ridge Case Study Conclusions Acknowledgements ReferencesDecommissioning of Nuclear Sites Anthony W. Banford and Richard B. Jarvis Introduction The Goal of Decommissioning Stages of Decommissioning The Scale of the Decommissioning Challenge in the UK Decommissioning Techniques Selection of a Decommissioning Approach Environmental Impacts of Decommissioning Conclusions ReferencesGeodisposal of Higher Activity Wastes Katherine Morris, Gareth T. W. Law and Nick D. Bryan Introduction Radioactive Wastes High Level Wastes Intermediate Level Waste Low Level Waste Other Potential Wastes Geological Disposal The GDF Concept International Experience Suitable Host Geologies Engineering Approaches Implementing the UK GDF Historical Perspective, Public Consultation, Policy Decisions, and Responsibilities Guiding Principles and Timeline Site Selection Inventory of Geodisposal Wastes Conditioning and Packaging of Geodisposal Wastes Interim Storage of Geodisposal Wastes Reference Scenarios Environmental Chemistry Research Challenges in Geological Disposal Acknowledgements ReferencesPathways of Radioactive Substances in the Environment Joanna C. Renshaw, Stephanie Handley-Sidhu and Diana R. Brookshaw Introduction Sources of Radionuclides in the Environment Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Fuel Cycle Depleted Uranium Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material Accidental Release Environmental Chemistry of Key Contaminants Processes and Factors aﬀecting Radionuclide Transport in the Atmosphere Processes and Factors aﬀecting Radionuclide Transport in Aquatic Systems Sorption to Mineral Surfaces Redox Reactions Complexation Reactions (Co-)Precipitation Colloidal Transport Conclusions ReferencesRadiation Protection of the Environment: A Summary of Current Approaches for Assessment of Radionuclides in Terrestrial Ecosystems B. J. Howard and N. A. Beresford Introduction Radiation Protection of Wildlife Environmental Transfer in Terrestrial Ecosystems Atmospheric Deposition Radionuclides in Soil Radionuclide Transfer to Plants Quantiﬁcation of Transfer to Plants Radionuclide Transfer to Terrestrial Animals Gastrointestinal Absorption Radionuclide Distribution in Animals Quantiﬁcation of Transfer to Animals Dosimetry for Wildlife Dose Rate Calculation Eﬀects on Wildlife Environmental Radiological Protection Benchmarks for Wildlife Assessment The ICRP’s Derived Consideration Reference Levels Alternative Approaches used in Radiological Risk Assessments Acknowledgements ReferencesRadiological Protection of Workers and the General Public Jan Pentreath Introduction The Health Eﬀects of Radiation The Scientiﬁc Framework for the Protection of Humans The ICRP’s System of Protection Justiﬁcation Optimisation Dose Limits Dose Constraints and Reference Levels Radiation Protection in Practice in the UK Radiation Exposure of Workers Radiation Exposure of the Public Experience Gained from Nuclear Accidents Outside the UK Conclusions References Subject Index
Чтобы скачать этот файл зарегистрируйтесь и/или войдите на сайт используя форму сверху.