Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011. 430 p. — ISBN 978-90-481-9904-4, e-ISBN 978-90-481-9905-1.This cross-sectional, interdisciplinary study traces the history of innovation of renewable energies in Germany. It features five renewable energy sectors of electricity generation: biomass, photovoltaic, wind energy, geothermal energy and hydropower. The study analyzes the development of the respective technologies as well as their contribution to electricity generation. It focuses on driving forces and constraints for renewable energies in the period between 1990 and today. Through tracking the innovations and mapping the actors, the book answers questions such as: Which technological developments, pivotal actors and actor constellations, which political strategies, goals and instruments play a major role in the innovation process? What legal, administrative, economic and social conditions have been and still are most significant? How do the conflicting aims of environmental protection objectives, including the goals to battle climate change, fit into the larger picture of energy production? Which are the variables that most affect the expansion of renewable energy usage, and in what way?ContentsIntroduction Introduction to the Methodology Research Questions and Objectives Procedure A Note on Style Methodology Used in the Constellation Analysis Constellation Analysis Constellation Elements Relations Context The Concept of a Biography of Innovation Governing Political and Social Processes ReferencesCross-sectoral Interventions, Events and Processes Crises as Triggers for Social Rethinking Processes Environmental and Climate Crises Oil Price Crises Nuclear Energy Crisis Energy Supply Crises and Electricity Gap Debate Food Crisis International Climate Protection Research and Politics International Climate Protection Process Establishment of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Incentives for Energy Policy at EU level Liberalization of the Energy Markets Renewables and Climate Protection Policy at EU Level European Emissions Trading (Cap and Trade) Emergence of National Problem Awareness and Process of Institutionalization Institutionalization of Environmental Protection Climate Protection in Politics and Administration Institutionalization of Renewable Energy Policy Establishment of Associations Energy and Climate Policy Strategies and Objectives at National Level Guidelines on Energy Policy Issued by the Federal Government in Change of Government to Red-Green in National Climate Protection Programs Nuclear Phaseout Resolution of Sustainability Strategy Government Aid for Renewable Energy Market Incentive Program Federal Research Funding Funding on State Level StrEG and EEG as Key Policy Measures The Electricity Feed-In Act (StrEG) The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) Integrated Energy and Climate Program of the Federal Government Environmental and Planning Law for Renewable Energy Projects Amendment of Regional Planning Law Zoning Law/Planning Permission Law Legal Basis for Grid Connection and Grid Expansion Overall Parameters of the Electricity Sector Integration of the Electricity Industry in Europe – Actors and Influencing Factors Structure of the German Electricity Supply Sector Liberalization of the Energy Market – The German Energy Industry Act Current Courses Set in the Energy Sector ReferencesInnovation Framework for Generating Biogas and Electricity from Biogas Preliminary Remarks Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process Historical Retrospective Phase: Pioneering Phase, 1970–1990 Phase: First Phase of Emergence From 1990 to 1999 Phase: Intensified Emergence Between 2000 and Mid-2004 Phase: Take-off from Mid-2004 to the End of 2006 Phase: Setback in Development 2007/2008 Consolidation from Mid-2008 Onward and Future Prospects ReferencesInnovation Conditions in the Case of Solar Power Generation Preliminary Remarks Phase-Specific Analysis of the Innovation Process A Historical Overview Phase: Pioneering Phase, 1970–1985 Phase: Stagnation of Industry Engagement, R&D, 1986–1991 Phase: Large-scale Testing from 1991 to 1994 Phase: Uncertainty and Slowdown, 1994–1998 Phase: Breakthrough, 1999–2003 Phase: Development Boom from 2004 ReferencesConditions for Innovation in Geothermal Power Generation Preliminary Remarks Phase-specific Analysis of the Innovation Process Use of Geothermal Heat in the Former GDR Phase: 1985–2003, Research and Development, Preliminary Projects to Generate Electricity Phase: Formation of Prospective Structures from Outlook ReferencesInnovation Framework for Generating Electricity from Wind Power Preliminary Remarks Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process Phase: Pioneering Phase – Mid-1970s Until Phase: Inception – Changing Context of Energy Policy Between 1986 and 1990 Phase: Breakthrough 1991–1995 Phase: Development Dip in the Mid-1990s Phase: Wind Power Boom and Reorganization /98 to 2002 Phase: Consolidation and Divergence of the Pathway from 2002 Onward References
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