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Bruns E., Ohlhorst D., Wenzel B., Köppel J. Renewable Energies in Germany's Electricity Market: A Biography of the Innovation Process

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Bruns E., Ohlhorst D., Wenzel B., Köppel J. Renewable Energies in Germany's Electricity Market: A Biography of the Innovation Process
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011. 430 p. — ISBN 978-90-481-9904-4, e-ISBN 978-90-481-9905-1.
This cross-sectional, interdisciplinary study traces the history of innovation of renewable energies in Germany. It features five renewable energy sectors of electricity generation: biomass, photovoltaic, wind energy, geothermal energy and hydropower. The study analyzes the development of the respective technologies as well as their contribution to electricity generation. It focuses on driving forces and constraints for renewable energies in the period between 1990 and today. Through tracking the innovations and mapping the actors, the book answers questions such as: Which technological developments, pivotal actors and actor constellations, which political strategies, goals and instruments play a major role in the innovation process? What legal, administrative, economic and social conditions have been and still are most significant? How do the conflicting aims of environmental protection objectives, including the goals to battle climate change, fit into the larger picture of energy production? Which are the variables that most affect the expansion of renewable energy usage, and in what way?
Introduction to the Methodology
Research Questions and Objectives
A Note on Style
Methodology Used in the Constellation Analysis
Constellation Analysis
Constellation Elements
The Concept of a Biography of Innovation
Governing Political and Social Processes
Cross-sectoral Interventions, Events and Processes
Crises as Triggers for Social Rethinking Processes
Environmental and Climate Crises
Oil Price Crises
Nuclear Energy Crisis
Energy Supply Crises and Electricity Gap Debate
Food Crisis
International Climate Protection Research and Politics
International Climate Protection Process
Establishment of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Incentives for Energy Policy at EU level
Liberalization of the Energy Markets
Renewables and Climate Protection Policy at EU Level
European Emissions Trading (Cap and Trade)
Emergence of National Problem Awareness and Process of Institutionalization Institutionalization of Environmental Protection
Climate Protection in Politics and Administration
Institutionalization of Renewable Energy Policy
Establishment of Associations
Energy and Climate Policy Strategies and Objectives at National Level
Guidelines on Energy Policy Issued by the Federal Government in
Change of Government to Red-Green in
National Climate Protection Programs
Nuclear Phaseout Resolution of
Sustainability Strategy
Government Aid for Renewable Energy
Market Incentive Program
Federal Research Funding
Funding on State Level
StrEG and EEG as Key Policy Measures
The Electricity Feed-In Act (StrEG)
The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG)
Integrated Energy and Climate Program of the Federal Government
Environmental and Planning Law for Renewable Energy Projects
Amendment of Regional Planning Law
Zoning Law/Planning Permission Law
Legal Basis for Grid Connection and Grid Expansion
Overall Parameters of the Electricity Sector
Integration of the Electricity Industry in Europe – Actors and Influencing Factors
Structure of the German Electricity Supply Sector
Liberalization of the Energy Market – The German Energy Industry Act
Current Courses Set in the Energy Sector
Innovation Framework for Generating Biogas and Electricity from Biogas
Preliminary Remarks
Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process
Historical Retrospective
Phase: Pioneering Phase, 1970–1990
Phase: First Phase of Emergence From 1990 to 1999
Phase: Intensified Emergence Between 2000 and Mid-2004
Phase: Take-off from Mid-2004 to the End of 2006
Phase: Setback in Development 2007/2008
Consolidation from Mid-2008 Onward and Future Prospects
Innovation Conditions in the Case of Solar
Power Generation
Preliminary Remarks
Phase-Specific Analysis of the Innovation Process
A Historical Overview
Phase: Pioneering Phase, 1970–1985
Phase: Stagnation of Industry Engagement, R&D, 1986–1991
Phase: Large-scale Testing from 1991 to 1994
Phase: Uncertainty and Slowdown, 1994–1998
Phase: Breakthrough, 1999–2003
Phase: Development Boom from 2004
Conditions for Innovation in Geothermal Power Generation
Preliminary Remarks
Phase-specific Analysis of the Innovation Process
Use of Geothermal Heat in the Former GDR
Phase: 1985–2003, Research and Development, Preliminary Projects to Generate Electricity
Phase: Formation of Prospective Structures from
Innovation Framework for Generating Electricity from Wind Power
Preliminary Remarks
Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process
Phase: Pioneering Phase – Mid-1970s Until
Phase: Inception – Changing Context of Energy
Policy Between 1986 and 1990
Phase: Breakthrough 1991–1995
Phase: Development Dip in the Mid-1990s
Phase: Wind Power Boom and Reorganization /98 to 2002
Phase: Consolidation and Divergence of the Pathway from 2002 Onward
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