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Michaelides E.E. (Stathis) Alternative Energy Sources

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Michaelides E.E. (Stathis) Alternative Energy Sources
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 478 p. — ISBN 978-3-642-20950-5, e-ISBN 978-3-642-20951-2.
Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near future (20-50 years).
The two first chapters on "energy demand and supply" and "environmental effects," set the tone as to why alternative energy is essential for the future. The third chapter gives the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The section on exergy gives a quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy, the power plants that may produce power from these sources and the issues that will frame the public debate on nuclear energy. The following five chapters include descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric) some of the less common sources (e.g. tidal and wave energy). The emphasis of these chapters will be on the global potential of each source, the engineering/technical systems that are used in harnessing the potential of each source, the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources and environmental effects associated with their wider use. The last three chapters are: "energy storage," which will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are used widely.
The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 10-20 problems and 1-3 suggestions of semester projects that may be assigned to students for further research.
Energy Demand and Supply
Forms and Units of Work, Heat and Energy
Units of Energy
Energy Demand and Supply
Energy Demand
Energy Supply
Energy Prices, OPEC and Politics
Reserves, Resources and Future Demand for Energy
Energy Reserves and Resources
The Finite Life of a Resource
The Hubbert Curve and the Hubbert Peak
Concluding Remarks
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Energy Production and Consumption
Environment, Ecology and Ecosystems
Global Climate Change
The Energy Balance of the Earth
The Greenhouse Effect
Major Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect
Remedial Actions for Global Warming
The Failure of the Copenhagen Summit
Acid Rain
Lead Abatement
Thermal Pollution and Fresh-Water Use
Nuclear Waste
Initial Treatment of the Waste
Long-Term Disposal
Sustainable Development
Fundamentals of Energy Conversion
Origins of Thermodynamics and Historical Context
Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics
Work, Heat and Energy
Sign Convention
The First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy Balance
Closed Systems
Cyclic Systems
Open Systems
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Implications of the Second Law on Energy Conversion Systems and Processes
Thermal Power Plants
Vapor Power Cycles: The Rankine Cycle
Gas Cycles: The Brayton Cycle
Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles
Exergy: Availability
Geothermal Energy Resources
Fossil-Fuel Resources
Radiation: The Sun as Energy Resource
Second Law Efficiency: Utilization Factor
Introduction to Nuclear Energy
Elements of Atomic and Nuclear Physics
Atoms and Nuclei: Basic Definitions
Atomic Mass, Mass Defect and Binding Energy
Nuclear Reactions and Energy Released
Rate of Radioactive Decay: Half Life
Nuclear Fission
Interactions of Neutrons with Nuclei
Cross Sections of Common Nuclei
Neutron Energies: Thermal Neutrons
The Chain Reaction: Probability of Fission
The Moderation Process and Common Moderators
Fission Products and Energy Released in Chain Reactions
Conversion and Breeding Reactions
Useful Calculations and Numbers for Electric Power Generation
Nuclear Power Plants
Basic Components of a Thermal Nuclear Power Plant
The Reactor Fuel
The Fuel Moderator
The Reactor Coolant
The Control Systems
The Shield
Nuclear Reactor Types and Power Plants
The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)
The CANDU Reactor
The Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR)
Other Reactors
Cooling of Nuclear Reactors
Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants: Three-Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima Dai-ichi
The Accident at the Three-Mile Island
The Accident at Chernobyl
The Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi
Environmental, Safety and Societal Issues for Thermal Nuclear Reactors
Breeder Reactors
Fast Breeder Power Plants
The Future of Nuclear Energy: To Breed or Not to Breed?
Fusion Energy
The Energy of the Stars
Man-Made Fusion
The Paths to Form Helium
The Deuterium–Tritium (DT) Fusion Reaction
Magnetic and Inertial Confinement of Plasma
A Fusion Electric Power Plant
Environmental Considerations
‘‘Cold Fusion,’’ Other Myths and Scientific Ethics
Muon Atomic Fusion
Cold Fusion in a Test-Tube
Ethical Lessons from the ‘‘Cold Fusion’’ Debacle
Solar Energy
Earth-Sun Mechanics and Solar Radiation
Solar Spectrum and Insolation on a Terrestrial Surface
Average Annual Solar Power: Solar Energy Potential
Solar-Thermal Systems
Power Cycles
Solar Reflectors and Heliostats
Energy Losses and Thermal Power Plant Operation
Solar Ponds
Passive Solar Heating: Solar Collectors
Direct Solar-Electric Energy Conversion: Photovoltaics
Band Theory of Electrons
Solar Cells and Direct Energy Conversion
Efficiency of Solar Cells
A Futuristic Concept: The Space Solar Power Station
Environmental Issues of Solar Energy Utilization
Wind Power
Wind Patterns
Early Types of Wind Utilization
Wind Power Potential
Principles of Wind Power
Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Wind: The Boundary Layer and Exceedance Curves
Probability Distributions of Wind Speed and Wind Power
Fundamentals of Wind Power Generation
Efficiency of Actual Wind Turbines
Power Generation Systems: Parts of Common Wind Turbines
Smaller Wind Turbines
Other Wind Power Systems
The Future of Wind Power
Environmental Effects
Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Resources
Geothermal Power Plants
Dry Steam Units
Single-Flashing Units
Dual Flashing Units
Several Flashing Processes: A Useful Theoretical Exercise
Binary Units
Hybrid Geothermal-Fossil Power Units
Effects of Impurities in the Geothermal Fluid
Cooling Systems
Geothermal District Heating: An Example of Exergy Savings and Environmental Benefit
Environmental Effects
Biomass Production, World Potential
Methods of Biomass Utilization
Aquatic Biomass
Ethanol Production from Corn
Environmental Effects
Land Use
Fresh Water Requirements
Use of Fertilizers and Pesticides
Unintended Production of Methane
Other Effects
Social, Economic and Other Issues for Biomass Utilization
The Future of Biomass for Energy Production
Power from the Water
Hydroelectric Power
Global Hydroelectric Energy Production
Planned Hydroelectric Installations and Future Expansion
Environmental Impacts and Safety Concerns
Tidal Power
Systems for Tidal Power Utilization
Environmental Effects of Tidal Systems
Ocean Currents
Wave Power
Wave Mechanics and Wave Power
Systems for Wave Power Utilization
Environmental Effects of Wave Power and Other Considerations
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
Two Systems for OTEC
Environmental Effects of OTEC and Other Considerations
Types of Water Power Turbines
Concluding Remarks on Water Power
Energy Storage
The Demand for Electricity: The Need to Store Energy
Electromechanical Storage
Pumped Water
Compressed Air
Springs, Torsion Bars and Flywheels
Capacitors, Ultra capacitors, and Superconducting Coils
Thermal Storage
Sensible and Latent Heat Storage
Heat Losses in Thermal Storage Systems
Storage of ‘‘Coolness’’ to Offset the Peak Power Demand
Chemical Storage: Batteries
The Electrochemical Cell
Commonly Used Battery Types
Hydrogen Storage: The Hydrogen Economy
Fuel Cells
High-Temperature Fuel Cells
Thermodynamic Losses and Fuel Cell Efficiency
Energy Conservation and Efficiency
Societal Tasks, Energy Consumption, Conservation and Higher Efficiency
The Use of the Exergy Concept to Reduce Energy Resource Consumption
Utilization of Fossil Fuel Resources
Minimization of Energy or Power Used for a Task
Combination of Tasks: Cogeneration
Waste Heat Utilization
Conservation and Efficiency Measures in Buildings
Use of Fluorescent Bulbs or Light Emitting Diodes
Use of Heat Pump Cycles for Heating and Cooling
Geothermal Heat Pumps
Adiabatic Evaporation
District Cooling
Other Energy Conservation Measures for Buildings
Conservation and Improved Efficiency in Transportation
Electric Cars
Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles
Economics of Energy Projects
Fundamental Concepts and Definitions
The Decision Making Process
Developing a List of Alternatives
The Time-Value of Money
Simple and Compound Interest
Cash Flow, Equivalence and Present Value
Cash Flow Calculations
A Note on the Discount Rate and Interest Rates
Investment Appraisal Methods
The Net Present Value (NPV)
Average Return on Book (ARB)
The Pay-Back Period (PBP)
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Profitability Index (PI)
Use of the NPV Method for Electricity Generation Projects
NPV and Governmental Incentives or Disincentives
Use of the NPV Method for Improved Efficiency Projects
Project Financing for Alternative Energy Technology
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