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Lackner M., Palotas A.B., Winter F. Combustion: From Basics to Applications

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Lackner M., Palotas A.B., Winter F. Combustion: From Basics to Applications
Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013. 285 p. —
Print ISBN (Hardcover): 978-3-527-33376-9
Print ISBN (Softcover): 978-3-527-33351-6
ePDF ISBN: 978-3-527-66721-5
ePub ISBN: 978-3-527-66720-8
mobi ISBN: 978-3-527- 66719-2
oBook ISBN: 978-3-527-66718-5
Filling a true gap in the market, this textbook is the only one to provide a concise introduction to combustion.
Written in a clear didactic style, the book focuses on practical aspects rather than theory and offers an overview of the topic for students and graduates as well as practitioners, teaching everything that is needed to get started in the field. The experienced authors are international experts in the area and cover the most common fuels, including solids, gases and liquids. The environmental impact is also discussed, such that readers will be able to develop an understanding of the central environmental issues and the possibilities for more sustainable combustion.
Contents
Foreword
Preface
History of Combustion
Introduction
Timetable
Outlook
Web Resources
References
Fuels
Introduction
Gaseous Fuels
Density
Specific Heat Capacity
Molar Weight
Gas Constant
Thermal Conductivity
Viscosity
Heating Values
Ignition Temperature
Ignition Limits
Laminar Flame Velocity
Wobbe Index
Methane Number
Liquid Fuels
Chemical and Physical Characteristics
Sulfur Content
Ash Content
Water Content
Carbon Residue
Density and Specific Gravity
Viscosity
Pour Point
Cloud Point
Flash Point
Solid Fuels
Origin of Solid Fuels
Biomass
Waste or Opportunity Fuels
Coal
Peat
Solid Fuels Characterization
Proximate Analysis
Ultimate Analysis
Physical Properties
References
Combustion Principles
Basic Combustion Calculations
Determination of the Quantity of Normal and Oxygenated Air Necessary for Complete Combustion
Air Requirement of Gaseous Fuels
Air Requirement for the Combustion of Liquid and Solid Fuels
Calculations for the Case of Oxygenated Air
Calculation of the Volume and the Composition of the Flue Gas
Flue Gas of Gaseous Fuels
Combustion Products of Liquid and Solid Fuels
The Effect of Oxygen Enrichment
Effect of Temperature and Pressure (Ideal Gas Law)
Determination of the Actual Excess Air Factor
Determination of the Combustion Temperature
Heating Values
Laminar Flame Velocity
Heat-, Mass- and Momentum Transport and Balance
Transport
Mass Transport
Diffusive Mass Transport
Convective Mass Transport
Mass Transfer
Heat Transport
Heat Conduction
Thermal Radiation
Heat Transfer
Momentum Transport
Balance
Mass Balance
Heat Balance
Momentum Balance
Elementary Reactions and Radicals
Elementary Reactions
Reaction Rates
Temperature Dependence
Collision Theory
Three-Body Reactions
Chemical Equilibrium
Gibbs Enthalpy
Radicals
Development and Analysis of a Set of Reactions
Simplification of a Set of Reactions
Ignition
Introduction
Autoignition
Induced Ignition
Theoretical Models for Ignition
Explosives
Flammability Limits
Minimum Ignition Energy
Quenching and Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG)
pT Explosion Diagram
Ignition Delay Time
Ignitability
Octane Number
Cetane Number
Ignition in Various Combustion Devices
Undesired Ignition
References
Environmental Impacts
Pollutants: Formation and Impact
Introduction
Description of Most Relevant Pollutants
Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC)
CO
NOx
SO
Dioxins
Particulate Matter (PM)
Soot
Ash
Alkali Metals
Heavy Metals
Concepts for Pollutant Reduction
Summary
Web Resources
Combustion and Climate Change
Introduction
Primary Energy Production
Combustion and Global Warming by Sectors
Mitigation of Global Warming in the Context of Combustion
Energy Efficiency
Reduction of CO2 Emissions
Use of Renewable Fuels
Other Measures Against Climate Change
Carbon Sequestration
Web Resources
References
Measurement Methods
Introduction
In Situ versus Ex Situ Measurements
Fuel Characterization
Proximate and Ultimate Analysis
Thermal Analysis (TGA/DSC)
Ash Melting
Laminar Flame Speed
Investigation of Combustion Processes
Selection of Non-optical Methods
Suction Probe Coupled with GC/MS
Hot Wire Anemometry
Thermocouple
Gas Potentiometric Sensors
Paramagnetic Analyzer for O
Selection of Optical Techniques
Chemiluminescence
Schlieren Photography
Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectrometer
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
Laser-Induced Absorption Techniques
Laser-Induced Emission Techniques
Laser-Induced Scattering Techniques
Particle Diagnostics
Spray Diagnostics
Other Techniques
Test Beds
Open Flames on Laboratory Model Burners
Combustion Bombs
Shock Tubes
Optical Engines
Pilot Plants
Combustors Placed on a Test Rig
Industrial Furnaces with Optical Access Ports
Advanced Combustion Control
References
Applications
Burners
The Evolution of Combustion Processes
The Flame
Fuel Preparation, Pre-Processing
Requirements of a Burner
Burner Classification by the Fuel Used
Burner Categories
Classification Methods for Gas Burners
Generalized Classification of Gas Burners
Burner Control, Automation
Flares
Categorization of Oil Burners
Atomization of the Fuel
Mixed Fuel and Alternative Burners
Industrial Boilers
Firing Systems for Steam Generation
Fixed Bed Combustion
Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC)
Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (BFBC)
Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC)
Dust Firing
Summary of Combustion Technologies for Boilers
Industrial Technologies
Characteristics of Industrial Heating Installations and Furnaces
Metal Industry
Shaft Furnaces
Aluminum Melting Furnaces
Crucible Furnaces
Annealing and Heat Treatment Furnaces
Ceramic Industry
Glass Melting Furnaces
Furnaces Used in Various Industries
Cylindrical Rotary Kilns
Chamber Furnaces
Indirectly Fired Chamber Furnaces
Heat Treatment Systems, Heat Treatment Furnace Plants
Complex Heat Treatment Systems
Continuous Heat Treatment Furnace Plants
Petroleum Industry Tube Furnaces
Internal Combustion Engines
Introduction
Four-Stroke Engines
Two-Stroke Engines
Spark Ignition Engines
Compression Ignition Engines
Cycle Analysis and Key Parameters
Ideal Air Standard Otto Cycle
Ideal Air Standard Diesel Cycle
Engine Emissions
Gasification and Pyrolysis
Introduction to Gasification and Industrial Applications
Fuel Conversion During Gasification
Gasification Chemistry and Reactions
Gasification Technologies
References
Safety Issues
Introduction
Fundamentals
Fire Classes
Working Mechanism of Fire Extinguishing Media
Fire Detectors
Deflagrations and Detonations
Dust Explosions
Legal Framework: Example of ATEX in Europe
Preventing and Mitigating the Effect of Explosions in Industry
Aspects of Preventive Fire Protection
Flame Retardants Containing Phosphorus
Flame Retardants Based on Hydroxides of Al and Mg
Organic, Halogen-Containing Compounds
Intumescence-Based Systems
Fire Suppression by Oxygen Reduction
Safety by Process Design
Other Important Terms Related to Fire Safety
Flashover
Loss-of-containment and Fires
Flammable Substance Release
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) and Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE)
Burning Index (Danger Class, Rating)
K Value (KG, KST)
Dust Explosion Class
Explosion Pressure
Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC)
References
Index
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