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Lee H.S. Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells

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Lee H.S. Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2010. 646 p. — ISBN: 978-0-470-49662-6.
The proposed is written as a senior undergraduate or the first-year graduate textbook,covering modern thermal devices such as heat sinks, thermoelectric generators and coolers, heat pipes, and heat exchangers as design components in larger systems. These devices are becoming increasingly important and fundamental in thermal design across such diverse areas as microelectronic cooling, green or thermal energy conversion, and thermal control and management in space, etc. However, there is no textbook available covering this range of topics. The proposed book may be used as a capstone design course after the fundamental courses such as thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. The underlying concepts in this book cover the, 1) understanding of the physical mechanisms of the thermal devices with the essential formulas and detailed derivations, and 2) designing the thermal devices in conjunction with mathematical modeling, graphical optimization, and occasionally computational-fluid-dynamic (CFD) simulation. Important design examples are developed using the commercial software, MathCAD, which allows the students to easily reach the graphical solutions even with highly detailed processes. In other words, the design concept is embodied through the example problems. The graphical presentation generally provides designers or students with the rich and flexible solutions toward achieving the optimal design. A solutions manual will be provided
Contents
Preface
Introduction
Introduction
Humans and Energy
Thermodynamics
Energy, Heat, and Work
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Heat Engines, Refrigerators, and Heat Pumps
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle
Heat Transfer
Introduction
Conduction
Convection
Parallel Flow on an Isothermal Plate
A Cylinder in Cross Flow
Flow in Ducts
Free Convection
Radiation
Thermal Radiation
View Factor
Radiation Exchange between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces
References
Heat Sinks
Longitudinal Fin of Rectangular Profile
Heat Transfer from Fin
Fin Effectiveness
Fin Efficiency
Corrected Profile Length
Optimizations
Constant Profile Area Ap
Constant Heat Transfer from a Fin
Constant Fin Volume or Mass
Multiple Fin Array I
Free (Natural) Convection Cooling
Small Spacing Channel
Large Spacing Channel
Optimum Fin Spacing
Forced Convection Cooling
Small Spacing Channel
Large Spacing Channel
Multiple Fin Array II
Natural (Free) Convection Cooling
Thermal Resistance and Overall Surface Efficiency
Fin Design with Thermal Radiation
Single Longitudinal Fin with Radiation
References
Problems
Thermoelectrics
Introduction
Thermoelectric Effect
Seebeck Effect
Peltier Effect
Thomson Effect
Thomson (or Kelvin) Relationships
Thermoelement Couple (Thermocouple)
The Figure of Merit
Similar and Dissimilar Materials
Similar Materials
Dissimilar Materials
Thermoelectric Generator (TEG)
Similar and Dissimilar Materials
Similar Materials
Dissimilar Materials
Conversion Efficiency and Current
Maximum Conversion Efficiency
Maximum Power Efficiency
Maximum Performance Parameters
Multicouple Modules
Thermoelectric Coolers (TEC)
Similar and Dissimilar Materials
Similar Materials
Dissimilar Materials
The Coefficient of Performance
Optimum Current for the Maximum Cooling Rate
Maximum Performance Parameters
Optimum Current for the Maximum COP
Generalized Charts
Optimum Geometry for the Maximum Cooling in Similar Materials
Thermoelectric Modules
Commercial TEC
Multistage Modules
Commercial Multistage Peltier Modules
Design Options
Applications
Thermoelectric Generators
Thermoelectric Coolers
Design Example
Design Concept
Design of Internal and External Heat Sinks
Design of Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC)
Finding the Exact Solution for Tc and Th
Performance Curves for Thermoelectric Air Cooler
Thermoelectric Module Design
Thermal and Electrical Contact Resistances for TEG
Thermal and Electrical Contact Resistances for TEC
Design Example of TEC Module
Design Concept
Summary of Design of a TEC Module
References
Problems
Heat Pipes
Operation of Heat Pipe
Surface Tension
Heat Transfer Limitations
Capillary Limitation
Maximum Capillary Pressure Difference
Vapor Pressure Drop
Liquid Pressure Drop
Normal Hydrostatic Pressure Drop
Axial Hydrostatic Pressure Drop
Approximation for Capillary Pressure Difference
Sonic Limitation
Entrainment Limitation
Boiling Limitation
Viscous Limitation
Heat Pipe Thermal Resistance
Contact Resistance
Variable Conductance Heat Pipes (VCHP)
Gas-Loaded Heat Pipes
Clayepyron-Clausius Equation
Applications
Loop Heat Pipes
Micro Heat Pipes
Steady-State Models
Conventional Model
Cotter’s Model
Working Fluid
Figure of Merit
Compatibility
Wick Structures
Design Example
Selection of Material and Working Fluid
Working Fluid Properties
Estimation of Vapor Space Radius
Estimation of Operating Limits
Capillary Limits
Sonic Limits
Entrainment Limits
Boiling Limits
Wall Thickness
Wick Selection
Maximum Arterial Depth
Design of Arterial Wick
Capillary Limitation
Liquid Pressure Drop in the Arteries
Liquid Pressure Drop in the Circumferential Wick
Vapor Pressure Drop in the Vapor Space
Performance Map
Check the Temperature Drop
References
Problems
Compact Heat Exchangers
Introduction
Fundamentals of Heat Exchangers
Counterflow and Parallel Flows
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
Flow Properties
Nusselt Numbers
Effectiveness–NTU (ε-NTU) Method
Parallel Flow
Counterflow
Crossflow
Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop
Fouling Resistances (Fouling Factors)
Overall Surface (Fin) Efficiency
Reasonable Velocities of Various Fluids in Pipe Flow
Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
Baffles
Multiple Passes
Dimensions of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger
Shell-side Tube Layout
Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE)
Flow Pass Arrangements
Geometric Properties
Friction Factor
Nusselt Number
Pressure Drops
Pressure Drops in Compact Heat Exchangers
Fundamentals of Core Pressure Drop
Core Entrance and Exit Pressure Drops
Contraction and Expansion Loss Coefficients
Circular-Tube Core
Square-Tube Core
Flat-Tube Core
Triangular-Tube Core
Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers
Geometrical Characteristics
Flow Properties
Thermal Properties
Correlations for Circular Finned-Tube Geometry
Pressure Drop
Correlations for Louvered Plate-Fin Flat-Tube Geometry
Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
Geometric Characteristics
Correlations for Offset Strip Fin (OSF) Geometry
Louver-Fin-Type Flat-Tube Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
Geometric Characteristics
Correlations for Louver Fin Geometry
References
Problems
Solar Cells
Introduction
Operation of Solar Cells
Solar Cells and Technology
Solar Irradiance
Air Mass
Nature of Light
Quantum Mechanics
Atomic Structure
Bohr’s Model
Line Spectra
De Broglie Wave
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Schr ¨ odinger Equation
A Particle in a 1-D Box
Quantum Numbers
Electron Configurations
Van der Waals Forces
Covalent Bonding
Energy Band
Pseudo-Potential Well
Density of States
Number of States
Effective Mass
Equilibrium Intrinsic Carrier Concentration
Fermi Function
Nondegenerate Semiconductor
Equilibrium Electron and Hole Concentrations
Intrinsic Semiconductors
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration, ni
Intrinsic Fermi Energy
Alternative Expression for n0 and p
Extrinsic Semiconductors in Thermal Equilibrium
Doping, Donors, and Acceptors
Extrinsic Carrier Concentration in Equilibrium
Built-in Voltage
Principle of Detailed Balance
Majority and Minority Carriers in Equilibrium
Generation and Recombination
Direct and Indirect Band Gap Semiconductors
Absorption Coefficient
Photogeneration
Recombination
Recombination Mechanisms
Band Energy Diagram under Nonequilibrium Conditions
Back Surface Field (BSF)
Low-Level Injection
Low-Level Injection
Band-to-Band Recombination
Trap-Assisted (SRH) Recombination
Simplified Expression of the SRH Recombination Rate
Auger Recombination
Total Recombination Rate
Carrier Transport
Drift
Carrier Mobility
Diffusion
Total Current Densities
Einstein Relationship
Semiconductor Equations
Minority-Carrier Diffusion Equations
P–n Junction
Calculation of Depletion Width
Energy Band Diagram with a Reference Point
Quasi-Fermi Energy Levels
Minority Carrier Transport
Boundary Conditions
Minority Carrier Lifetimes
Minority Carrier Diffusion Lengths
Minority Carrier Diffusion Equation for Holes
Minority Carrier Diffusion Equation for Electrons
Characteristics of Solar Cells
Current Density
Current-Voltage Characteristics
Figures of Merit
Effect of Minority Electron Lifetime on Efficiency
Effect of Minority Hole Lifetime on Efficiency
Effect of Back Surface Recombination Velocity on Efficiency
Effect of Base Width on Efficiency
Effect of Emitter Width WN on Efficiency
Effect of Acceptor Concentration on Efficiency
Effect of Donor Concentration on Efficiency
Band Gap Energy with Temperature
Effect of Temperature on Efficiency
Additional Topics
Parasitic Resistance Effects (Ohmic Losses)
Quantum Efficiency
Ideal Solar Cell Efficiency
Modeling
Modeling for a Silicon Solar Cell
Comparison of the Solar Cell Model with a Commercial Product
Design of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Geometry with Surface Recombination Velocities
Donor and Acceptor Concentrations
Minority Carrier Diffusion Lifetimes
Grid Spacing
Anti-Reflection, Light Trapping and Passivation
References
Problems
Appendix A Thermophysical Properties
Appendix B Thermoelectrics
Thermoelectric Effects
Seebeck Effect
Peltier Effect
Thomson Effect
Thomson (or Kelvin) Relationships
Heat Balance Equation
Figure of Merit and Optimum Geometry
References
Appendix C Pipe Dimensions
Appendix D Curve Fitting of Working Fluids
Curve Fit for Working Fluids Chosen
Curve Fitting for Working Fluid Properties Chosen
MathCad Format
Appendix E Tutorial I for 2-D
Problem Description for Tutorial I
Tutorial I: Using Gambit and Fluent for Thermal Behavior of an Electrical Wire
Creating Geometry in Gambit
Calculations for Heat Generation
Appendix F Tutorial II for 3-D
Problem Description for Tutorial II
Tutorial II Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger: Using SolidWorks, Gambit, and Fluent
Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger
Construct Model in SolidWorks
Meshing the Double Pipe Heat Exchanger in Gambit
Analysis of Heat Exchanger in Fluent
Appendix G Computational Work of Heat Pipe
Heat Pipe and Heat Sink
Appendix H Computational Work of a Heat Sink
Electronic Package Cooling
Appendix I Tutorial for MathCAD
Tutorial Problem for MathCAD
Index
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