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Stolten D., Scherer V. (ed.) Transition to Renewable Energy Systems: Energy Process Engineering

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Stolten D., Scherer V. (ed.) Transition to Renewable Energy Systems: Energy Process Engineering
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013. 977 p. Print ISBN: 978-3-527-33239-7, ePDF ISBN: 978-3-527-67390-2, ePub ISBN: 978-3-527-67389-6, Mobi ISBN: 978-3-527-67388-9, oBook ISBN: 978-3-527-67387-2.
In the wake of global climate change and increasing geopolitical instability of oil supply an accelerated Transition to Renewable Energy System gets increasingly important, if not unavoidable.
This book encompasses reports of select energy strategies as well as in-depth technical information of the already or potentially involved technologies. On the one hand, it compiles the description of technologies that already proved to be game changers of the energy supply in some countries, i.e. solar, wind, biomass and hydro power, with a strong focus on data, facts and figures that are needed to design a renewable energy system for a region or a country. On the other hand, this book compiles many more technologies that bear the potential to become game changes in some regions or countries, like maritime power technologies or geothermal energy. The focus on the whole energy system involves particular consideration of storage technologies for the fluctuating renewable energy input as well as an overview on energy transportation as electrical or chemical energy. Also the end-use of the renewable energy is considered if the energy system is affected, like in automotive transportation via battery or fuel cell vehicles.
Postulating climate change as a major driver for renewable energies, the articles of the book are written assuming the time-line of 2050 for a major CO2 reduction in order to fulfill the UN global warming goal of 2°C. Hence, technologies that have a potential to leave the research stage by 2030 are considered since further ten years are required for industrial development and market penetration each. Transition to Renewable Energy Systems provides specific insights for energy engineers, process engineers, chemists, and physicists, as well as a sufficiently broad scope to be able to understand the challenges, opportunities and implications of a transition to renewable energy systems so that strategies can be cast.
List of Contributors
Renewable Strategies
South Korea’s Green Energy Strategies
Deokyu Hwang, Suhyeon Han, and Changmo Sung
Government-Driven Strategies and Policies
Focused R&D Strategies
Promotion of Renewable Energy Industries
Present and Future of Green Energy in South Korea
Japan’s Energy Policy After the 3.11 Natural and Nuclear Disasters – from the Viewpoint of the R&D of Renewable Energy and Its Current State
Hirohisa Uchida
Energy Transition in Japan
Economic Growth and Energy Transition
Transition of Power Configuration
Nuclear Power Technology
Diversification of Energy Resource
Thermal Power
Renewable Energy Policy by Green Energy Revolution
Agenda with Three NP Options
Green Energy Revolution
Feed-in Tariff for RE
Renewable Energy and Hydrogen Energy
Solar–Hydrogen Stations and Fuel Cell Vehicles
Rechargeable Batteries
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology
Stationary Use
Mobile Use
Public Acceptance
The Impact of Renewable Energy Development on Energy and CO2 Emissions in China
liang Zhang, Tianyu Qi and Valerie Karplus
Renewable Energy in China and Policy Context
Energy and Climate Policy Goals in China
Renewable Electricity Targets
Data and CGEM Model Description
Model Data
Renewable Energy Technology
Scenario Description
Economic Growth Assumptions
Current Policy Assumptions
Cost and Availability Assumptions for Energy Technologies
Renewable Energy Growth Under Policy
Impact of Renewable Energy Subsidies on CO2 Emissions Reductions
Impact of a Cost Reduction for Renewable Energy After
The Scottish Government’s Electricity Generation Policy Statement
Colin Imrie
Executive Summary
Transition to Renewables as a Challenge for the Industry – the German Energiewende from an Industry Perspective
Carsten Rolle, Dennis Rendschmidt
Targets and current status of the Energiewende
Industry view: opportunities and challenges
The way ahead

The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables: Integration Options and Deadlocks

Lion Hirth and Falko Ueckerdt
The Decreasing Market Value of Variable Renewables
Mechanisms and Quantification
Profile Costs
Balancing Costs
Grid-Related Costs
Integration Options
A Taxonomy
Profile Costs
Balancing Costs
Grid-Related Costs
Transition to a Fully Sustainable Global Energy System
Yvonne Y. Deng, Kornelis Blok, Kees van der Leun, and Carsten Petersdorff
Results – Demand Side
Industry – Future activity
Industry – Future Intensity
Industry – Future Energy Demand
Buildings – Future Activity
Buildings – Future Intensity
Buildings – Future Energy Demand
Transport – Future Activity
Transport – Future Intensity
Transport – Future Energy Demand
Demand Sector Summary
Results – Supply Side
Supply Potential
Results of Balancing Demand and Supply
Power Grids
The Need for Policy
Sensitivity of Results
The Transition to Renewable Energy Systems – On the Way to a Comprehensive Transition Concept
Uwe Schneidewind, Karoline Augenstein, and Hanna Scheck
Why Is There a Need for Change? –
The World in the Age of the Anthropocene
A Transition to What?
Introducing the Concept of Transformative Literacy
Four Dimensions of Societal Transition
On the Structural Interlinkages of the Four Dimensions of Transitions
Infrastructures and Technologies – the Technological Perspective
Financial Capital – the Economic Perspective
Institutions/Policies – the Institutional Perspective
Cultural Change/Consumer Behavior – the Cultural Perspective
Techno-Economists, Institutionalists, and Culturalists –
Three Conflicting Transformation Paradigms
Renewable Energy Future for the Developing World
Dieter Holm
Descriptions and Definitions of the Developing World
The Developing World
The Developing World in Transition
Emerging Economies – BRICS
Can Renewable Energies Deliver?
Opportunities for the Developing World
Poverty Alleviation through RE Jobs
A New Energy Infrastructure Model
Great RE Potential of Developing World
Underdeveloped Conventional Infrastructure
Development Framework
National Renewable Energies Within Global Guard Rails
The International Context: Global Guard Rails
Socio-Economic Guard Rails
Ecological Guard Rails
Policies Accelerating Renewable Energies in Developing Countries
Regulations Governing Market/Electricity Grid Access and Quotas
Mandating Capacity/Generation
Feed-in Tariffs
Quotas – Mandating Capacity/Generation
Applicability in the Developing World
Financial Incentives
Tax relief
Rebates and Payments
Low-Interest Loans and Guaranties
Addressing Subsidies and Prices of Conventional Energy
Industry Standards, Planning Permits, and Building Codes
Education, Information, and Awareness
Ownership, Cooperatives, and Stakeholders
Research, Development, and Demonstration
Priorities – Where to Start
Learning from Past Mistakes
Conclusions and Recommendations
An Innovative Concept for Large-Scale Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants
Ulrich Hueck
Considerations for Large-Scale Deployment
Technologies to Produce Electricity from Solar Radiation
Basic Configurations of Existing CSP Plants
Review for Large-Scale Deployment
Robustness of Technology to Produce Electricity
Capability to Produce Electricity Day and Night
Type of Concentration of Solar Radiation
Shape of Mirrors for Concentration of Solar Radiation
Area for Solar Field
Technology to Capture Heat from Solar Radiation
Working Fluids and Heat Storage Media
Direct Steam Generation
Inlet Temperature for Power Generation
Type of Cooling System
Size of Solar Power Plants
Robustness of Other Technologies
Summary for Comparison of Technologies
Advanced Solar Boiler Concept for CSP Plants
Summary of Concept
Description of Concept
Direct Solar Steam Generation
Rankine Cycle for Steam Turbine
Solar Boiler for Steam Generation
Solar Steam Generation Inside Ducts
Arrangement of Heat-Transfer Sections
Utilization of Waste Heat
Thermal Storage System for Night-Time Operation
Practical Implementation of Concept
Technical Procedure for Implementation
Financial Procedure for Implementation
Strategic Procedure for Implementation
Status of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development and Deployment: Hyundai’s Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development as a Best Practice Example
Tae Won Lim
Development of the FCEV
Fuel Cell Stack Durability and Driving Ranging of FCEVs
Packing of FCEVs
Cost of FCEVs
History of HMC FCEV Development
Performance Testing of FCEVs
Crashworthiness and Fire Tests
Sub-Zero Conditions Tests
Durability Test
Hydrogen Refueling
Cost Reduction of FCEV
Demonstration and Deployment Activities of FCEVs in Europe
Roadmap of FCEV Commercialization and Conclusions
Hydrogen as an Enabler for Renewable Energies
Detlef Stolten, Bernd Emonts, Thomas Grube, and Michael Weber 12.1 Introduction
Status of CO2 Emissions
Power Density as a Key Characteristic of Renewable Energies and Their Storage Media
Fluctuation of Renewable Energy Generation
Strategic Approach for the Energy Concept
Status of Electricity Generation and Potential for Expansion of Wind Turbines in Germany
Assumptions for the Renewable Scenario with a Constant Number of Wind Turbines
Results of the Scenario
Fuel Cell Vehicles
Hydrogen Pipelines and Storage
Cost Estimate
Discussion of Results
Pre-Investigation of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales for Electric Grid Load Balancing
Fernando Gutiérrez-Martín
Electrolytic Hydrogen
Electrolyzer Performance
Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate by Water Electrolysis
Simulation of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production
Operation of the Electrolyzers for Electric Grid Load Balancing
The Spanish Power System
Integration of Hydrogen Technologies at Large Scales
Hourly Average Curves
Annual Curves
Power Production
Onshore Wind Energy
Po Wen Cheng
Market Development Trends
Technology Development Trends
General Remarks About Future Wind Turbines
Power Rating
Number of Blades
Rotor Materials
Rotor Diameter
Upwind or Downwind
Drive train Concept
Tower Concepts
Wind Turbine and Wind Farm Control
Environmental Impact
Regulatory Framework
Economics of Wind Energy
The Future Scenario of Onshore Wind Power
Offshore Wind Power
David Infield
Introduction and Review of Offshore Deployment
Wind Turbine Technology Developments
Site Assessment
Wind Farm Design and Connection to Shore
Installation and Operations and Maintenance
Future Prospects and Research Needed to Deliver on These
Towards Photovoltaic Technology on the Terawatt Scale: Status and Challenges
Bernd Rech, Sebastian S. Schmidt, and Rutger Schlatmann
Working Principles and Solar Cell Fabrication
Crystalline Si Wafer-Based Solar Cells – Today’s Workhorse Technology
Thin-Film PV: Challenges and Opportunities of Large-Area Coating Technologies
Technological Design of PV Systems
Residential Grid-Connected PV System: Roof Installation
Building-Integrated PV
Flexible Solar Cells
Cutting Edge Technology of Today
Efficiencies and Costs
Crystalline Silicon Wafer-Based High-Performance Solar Modules
Thin-Film Technologies
R&D Challenges for PV Technologies Towards the Terawatt Scale
Towards Higher Efficiencies and Lower Solar Module Costs
Crystalline Silicon Technologies
Thin-Film Technologies
Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV)
Emerging Systems
Possible Game Changers and/or Valuable Add-Ons
Massive Integration of PV Electricity in the Future Energy Supply System
Beyond Technologies and Costs
Solar Thermal Power Production
Robert Pitz-Paal, Reiner Buck, Peter Heller, Tobias Hirsch, and Wolf-Dieter Steinmann
General Concept of the Technology
Technology Characteristics and Options
Environmental Profile
Technology Overview
Parabolic Trough Collector systems
Parabolic Trough Collector Development
Linear Fresnel Collector Systems
Solar Tower Systems
Thermal Storage Systems
Basic Storage Concepts
Commercial Storage Systems
Current Research Activities
Cost Development and Perspectives
Cost Structure and Actual Cost Figures
Cost Reduction Potential
Scaling Up
Volume Production
Technology Innovations
Geothermal Power
Christopher J. Bromley and Michael A. Mongillo 18.1 Introduction
Geothermal Power Technology
Global Geothermal Deployment: the IEA Roadmap and the IEA-GIA
Relative Advantages of Geothermal
Geothermal Reserves and Deployment Potential
Economics of Geothermal Energy
Sustainability and Environmental Management
Catalyzing Growth: an Overview of the United Kingdom’s Burgeoning Marine Energy Industry
David Krohn
Development of the Industry
The Benefits of Marine Energy
Expected Levels of Deployment
Determining the Levelized Cost of Energy Trajectory
The Cost of Energy Trajectory
Technology Readiness
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Tidal Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Wave Device Case Study
Ånund Killingtveit
Introduction – Basic Principles
The Hydrological Cycle – Why Hydropower Is Renewable
Computing Hydropower Potential
Hydrology – Variability in Flow
Hydropower Resources/Potential Compared with Existing System
Definition of Potential
Global and Regional Overview
Barriers – Limiting Factors
Climate-Change Impacts
Technological Design
Run-of-River Hydropower
Storage Hydropower
Pumped Storage Hydropower
Cutting Edge Technology
Extending the Operational Regime for Turbines
Utilizing Low or Very Low Head
Fish-Friendly Power Plants
Tunneling and Underground Power Plants
Future Outlook
Cost Performance
Future Energy Cost from Hydropower
Carbon Mitigation Potential
Future Deployment
Systems Analysis
Integration into Broader Energy Systems
Power System Services
Sustainability Issues
Environmental Impacts
Lifecycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Energy Payback Ratio
The Future Role of Fossil Power Plants – Design and Implementation
Erland Christensen and Franz Bauer
Political Targets/Regulatory Framework
Market Constraints – Impact of RES
System Requirements and Technical Challenges for the Conventional Fleet
Flexibility Requirements with Load Following and Gradients
Delivery of System Services
Primary Reserve/Control
Secondary Reserve/Control
Tertiary or Manual Reserve
Short-Circuit Effect, Reactive Reserves, and Voltage Regulation, Inertia of the System
Secure Power Supply When Wind and Solar Are Not Available
District Heating
Co-combustion of Biomass
Technical Challenges for Generation
Economic Challenges
Principles Underlying the Data on CAPEX and OPEX
Future Generation Portfolio – RES Versus Residual Power
Gas Production
Status on Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis
Jürgen Mergel, Marcelo Carmo, and David Fritz
Physical and Chemical Fundamentals
Water Electrolysis Technologies
Alkaline Electrolysis
PEM Electrolysis
High-Temperature Water Electrolysis
Need for Further Research and Development
Alkaline Water Electrolysis
Electrocatalysts for Alkaline Water Electrolysis
PEM Electrolysis
Electrocatalysts for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER)
Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER)
Separator Plates and Current Collectors
Production Costs for Hydrogen
Hydrogen Production by Solar Thermal Methane Reforming
Christos Agrafiotis, Henrik von Storch, Martin Roeb, and Christian Sattler
Hydrogen Production Via Reforming of Methane Feedstocks
Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics of Reforming
Current Industrial Status
Solar-Aided Reforming
Coupling of Solar Energy to the Reforming Reaction: Solar Receiver/Reactor Concepts
Worldwide Research Activities in Solar Thermal Methane
Indirectly Heated Reactors
Directly Irradiated Reactors
Current Development Status and Future Prospects
Biomass – Aspects of Global Resources and Political Opportunities
Gustav Melin
Our Perceptions: Are They Misleading Us?
Biomass – Just a Resource Like Other Resources – Price Gives Limitations
Global Food Production and Prices
Production Capacity per Hectare in Different Countries
Global Arable Land Potential
Global Forests Are Carbon Sinks Assimilating One-Third of Total Carbon Emissions
Forest Supply – the Major Part of Sweden’s Energy Supply
Lower Biomass Potential If No Biomass Demand
Biomass Potential Studies
The Political Task
Political Measures, Legislation, Steering Instruments, and Incentives
Carbon Dioxide Tax: the Most Efficient Steering Instrument
Less Political Damage
Use Biomass
Flexible Power Generation from Biomass – an Opportunity for a Renewable Sources-Based Energy System?
Daniela Thrän, Marcus Eichhorn, Alexander Krautz, Subhashree Das, and Nora Szarka
Challenges of Power Generation from Renewables in Germany
Power Generation from Biomass
Demand-Driven Electricity Commission from Solid Biofuels
Demand-Driven Electricity Commission from Liquid Biofuels
Demand-Driven Electricity Commission from Gaseous Biofuels
Potential for Flexible power Generation – Challenges and Opportunities
Options for Biofuel Production – Status and Perspectives
Franziska Müller-Langer, Arne Gröngröft, Stefan Majer, Sinéad O’Keeffe, and Marco Klemm
Characteristics of Biofuel Technologies
Synthetic BTL
Upgraded Biochemically Produced Biogas
Thermochemically Produced Bio-SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas)
Other Innovative Biofuels
BTL Fuels Such as Methanol and Dimethyl Ether
Sugars to Hydrocarbons
Algae-Based Biofuels
System Analysis on Technical Aspects
Capacities of Biofuel Production Plants
Overall Efficiencies of Biofuel Production Plants
System Analysis on Environmental Aspects
Differences in LCA Studies for Biofuel Options
Drivers for GHG Emissions: Biomass Production
Drivers for GHG Emissions: Biomass Conversion
Perspectives for LCA Assessments
System Analysis on Economic Aspects
Total Capital Investments for Biofuel Production Plants
Biofuel Production Costs
Conclusion and Outlook
Technical Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Economic Aspects
Future R&D needs
Energy Storage Technologies – Characteristics, Comparison, and Synergies
Andreas Hauer, Josh Quinnell, and Eberhard Lävemann 27.1 Introduction
Energy Storage Technologies
Energy Storage Properties
Electricity Storage
Storage of Thermal Energy
Energy Storage by Chemical Conversion
Technical Comparison of Energy Storage Technologies
The Role of Energy Storage
Balancing Supply and Demand
Distributed Energy Storage Systems and Energy Conversion
Distributed Energy Storage Systems
In/Out Storage Versus One-Way Storage
Example: Power-to-Gas Versus Long-Term Hot Water Storage
Economic Evaluation of Energy Storage Systems
Top-Down Approach for Maximum Energy Storage Costs

Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage Systems

Seung Mo Oh, Sa Heum Kim, Youngjoon Shin, Dongmin Im, and Jun Ho Song
R&D Status of Secondary Batteries
Lithium-Ion Batteries
Redox-Flow Batteries
Sodium–Sulfur Batteries
Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
Lithium–Air Batteries
Secondary Batteries for Electric Vehicles
Secondary Batteries For Energy Storage Systems
Lithium-Ion Batteries for ESS
Redox-Flow Batteries for ESS
Sodium–Sulfur Batteries for ESS
Pumped Storage Hydropower
Atle Harby, Julian Sauterleute, Magnus Korpås, Ånund Killingtveit, Eivind Solvang, and Torbjørn Nielsen
Principle and Purpose of Pumped Storage Hydropower
Deployment of Pumped Storage Hydropower
Pumped Storage Technology
Operational Strategies
Future Pumped Storage Plants
Environmental Impacts of Pumped Storage Hydropower
Challenges for Research and Development
Case Study: Large-Scale Energy Storage and Balancing from Norwegi Hydropower
Demand for Energy Storage and Balancing Power
Technical Potential
Water Level Fluctuations in Reservoirs
Environmental Impacts
System Analysis of Linking Wind and Flexible Hydropower
Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via Hydrogen – Principles and Hydrocarbon Fuels as an Example
Georg Schaub, Hilko Eilers, and Maria Iglesias González
Integration of Electricity in Chemical Fuel Production
Example: Hydrocarbon Fuels
Hydrocarbon Fuels Today
Hydrogen Demand in Hydrocarbon Fuel Upgrading/Production
Hydrogen in Petroleum Refining
Hydrogen in Synfuel Production
Example: Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) from H2–CO
Example: Liquid Fuels from Biomass
Cost of Hydrogen Production

Geological Storage for the Transition from Natural to Hydrogen Gas

Jürgen Wackerl, Martin Streibel, Axel Liebscher, and Detlef Stolten
Current Situation
Natural Gas Storage
Requirements for Subsurface Storage
Geological Situation in Central Europe and Especially Germany
Types of Geological Gas Storage Sites
Pore-Space Storage Sites
Oil and Gas Fields
Abandoned Mining Sites
Salt Caverns
Comparisons with Other Locations and Further Considerations with Focus on Hydrogen Gas
Near-Surface Bulk Storage of Hydrogen
Vanessa Tietze and Sebastian Luhr
Storage Parameters
Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen Storage
Thermodynamic Fundamentals
Hydrogen Compressors
Hydrogen Pressure Vessels
Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Storage
Thermodynamic Fundamentals
Liquefaction Plants
Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks
Metal Hydrides
Characteristics of Materials
Cost Estimates and Economic Targets
Technical Assessment
Energy Storage Based on Electrochemical Conversion of Ammonia
Jürgen Fuhrmann, Marlene Hülsebrock, and Ulrike Krewer
Ammonia Properties and Historical Uses as an Energy Carrier
Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: Synthesis
Haber–Bosch Process
Electrochemical Synthesis
Pathways for Ammonia Conversion: Energy Recovery
Direct Ammonia Fuel Cells
Energy Recovery via Hydrogen
Comparison of Pathways
Introduction to Transmission Grid Components
Armin Schnettler
Classification of Transmission System Components
Transmission Technologies
Overhead Lines
Underground Lines
Conversion Technologies
Power Transformers
FACTS Devices
HVDC Converters
System Integration of Transmission Technologies
Recent Developments of Transmission System Components
Introduction to the Transmission Networks
Göran Andersson, Thilo Krause, and Wil Kling
The Transmission System – Development, Role, and Technical Limitations
The Development Stages of the Transmission System
Tasks of the Transmission System
Technical Limitations of Power Transmission
The Transmission Grid in Europe – Current Situation and Challenges
Historical Evolution of the UCTE/ENTSO-E Grid
Transmission Challenges Driven by Electricity Trade
Transmission Challenges Driven by the Production Side
Transmission Challenges Driven by the Demand Side and
Developments in the Distribution Grid
Market Options for the Facilitation of Future Bulk Power Transport
Cross-Border Trading and Market Coupling
Cross-Border Balancing
Technological Options for the Facilitation of Future Bulk Power Transport
Case Study

Smart Grid: Facilitating Cost-Effective Evolution to a Low-Carbon Future

Goran Strbac, Marko Aunedi, Danny Pudjianto, and Vladimir Stanojevic
Overview of the Present Electricity System Structure and Its Design and Operation Philosophy
System Integration Challenges of Low-Carbon Electricity Systems
Smart Grid: Changing the System Operation Paradigm
Quantifying the Benefits of Smart Grid Technologies in a Low-Carbon future
Integration of Demand-Side Response in System Operation and
Control of Domestic Appliances
Integration of EVs
Smart Heat Pump Operation
Role and Value of Energy Storage in Smart Grid
Implementation of Smart Grid: Distributed Energy Marketplace
Natural Gas Pipeline Systems
Gerald Linke
Physical and Chemical Fundamentals
Technological Design
Cutting Edge Technology of Today
Outlook on R&D Challenges
System Analysis
Introduction to a Future Hydrogen Infrastructure
Joan Ogden
Technical Options for Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Use in Vehicles
Hydrogen Vehicles
Hydrogen Production Methods
Options for Producing Hydrogen with Near-Zero Emission
Hydrogen Delivery Options
Hydrogen Refueling Stations
Economic and Environmental Characteristics of Hydrogen Supply Pathways
Economics of Hydrogen Supply
Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen Pathways
Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Air Pollution, and Energ Use
Resource Use and Sustainability
Infrastructure Compatibility
Strategies for Building a Hydrogen Infrastructure
Design Considerations for Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure
Hydrogen Transition Scenario for the United States
Power to Gas
Sebastian Schiebahn, Thomas Grube, Martin Robinius, Li Zhao, Alexander Otto, Bhunesh Kumar, Michael Weber, and Detlef Stolten
Alkaline Water Electrolysis
Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolysis
High-Temperature Water Electrolysis
Integration of Renewable Energies with Electrolyzers
Catalytic Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methane
Methanation Plants
CO2 Sources
CO2 via Carbon Capture and Storage
CO2 Obtained from Biomass
CO2 from Other Industrial Processes
CO2 Recovery from Air
Gas Storage
Porous Rock Storage
Salt Cavern Storage
Gas Pipelines
Natural Gas Pipeline System
Hydrogen Pipeline System
End-Use Technologies
Stationary End Use
Central Conversion of Natural Gas Mixed with Hydrogen in Combustion Turbines
Decentralized Conversion of Natural Gas Mixed with Hydrogen in Gas Engines
Conversion of Hydrogen Mixed with Natural Gas in Combustion Heating Systems
Passenger Car Powertrains with Fuel Cells and Internal Combustion Engines
Direct-Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems
Internal Combustion Engines
Evaluation of Process Chain Alternatives
Transition from Petro-Mobility to Electro-Mobility
David L. Greene, Changzheng Liu, and Sangsoo Park
Recent Progress in Electric Drive Technologies
Energy Efficiency
The Challenge of Energy Transition
A New Environmental Paradigm: Sustainable Energy Transitions
Status of Transition Plans
Modeling and Analysis

Nearly Zero, Net Zero, and Plus Energy Buildings – Theory, Terminology, Tools, and Examples

Karsten Voss, Eike Musall, Igor Sartori and Roberto Lollini
Physical and Balance Boundaries
Weighting Systems
Balance Types
Transient Characteristics
Examples and Experiences
China Road Map for Building Energy Conservation
Peng Chen, Yan Da, and Jiang Yi
The Upper Bound of Building Energy Use in China
Limitation of the Total Amount of Carbon Emissions
Limitation of the Total Amount of Available Energy in China
Limitation of the Total Amount of Building Energy Use in China
The Way to Realize the Targets of Building Energy Control in China
Factors Affecting Building Energy Use
The Total Building Floor Area
The Energy Use Intensity
The Energy Use of Northern Urban Heating
The Energy Use of Urban Residential Buildings
(Excluding Heating in the North)
The Energy Use of Commercial and Public Buildings
(Excluding Heating in the North)
The Energy Use of Rural Residential Buildings
The Target of Buildings Energy Control in China in the Future
Energy Savings Potentials and Technologies in the Industrial Sector: Europe as an Example
Tobias Bossmann, Rainer Elsland, Wolfgang Eichhammer, and Harald Bradke
Electric Drives
E-Drive System Optimization
Steam and Hot Water Generation
Other Industry Sectors
Overall Industry Sector
Subject Index
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